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No Grains - Please!
We know that dogs are fashioned as carnivores with teeth designed to tear flesh, not grind food as the herbivore does. Dogs have simple stomachs and a short acidic intestinal tract that is ideal for digesting meat. The dog does not digest grains and vegetables as readily as it does meat and bone. Although dogs have somehow managed to adapt (to some extent) to carbohydrates in their diet, their body prefers a food high in animal protein.

Grain makes up a considerable portion of both commercial and a number of homemade feeding programs. The use of grains in dry processed pet foods became popular because it is a less expensive source for energy than fat or protein. Insufficient animal-derived protein in a dog's diet can cause deficiencies, which is manifested in diseases that may include skin and chronic ear infections, reproductive, heart, kidney, bladder, thyroid and adrenal gland malfunctions. It is fact that dogs do not have a dietary requirement for carbohydrates. There are requirements for essential' fatty acids and essential amino acids (protein), but there is no known necessity for carbohydrates. However, dogs do have a metabolic requirement for glucose, which can be produced within the body or through diet. Metabolic pathways in the liver and kidney can use other nutrients to produce glucose. Therefore, sources of dietary carbohydrate are not necessary if protein and fat intake are adequate to provide the needed precursors of glucose.

There are many issues surrounding the nutritional value of grains. Most refined grain products act more like simple sugars in the body, meaning they are broken down into blood sugar quickly after being eaten. In other words, they have high glycemic ratings. On the other hand, vegetables, with the exception of root vegetables, potatoes and most fruits, have low to moderate glycemic ratings. Foods that elevate blood sugar produce harmful molecules called free radicals, which accelerate aging. Excess glucose reacts with and damages proteins in the body, which also ages tissues. Research is indicating that diets based on low glycemic carbohydrates improve blood sugar metabolism. However, as useful as the glycemic index is for evaluating food's effects on blood sugar levels, it is sometimes overvalued. To get a true understanding of how healthful various carbohydrates are you would also need to consider the amount of carbohydrates different foods supply. The carbohydrate density of a food is determined by the amount of digestible carbohydrates in the food less the grams of fiber. If you evaluate carbohydrates by both their glycemic index and carbohydrate density, refined grain products rate worse than almost any other food.

Are whole grains better than refined grains? At first glance whole grains may appear to contain more nutrients and blood regulating fiber. Due to their higher fiber content, they tend to rate lower on the glycemic index. The more grains are processed, the more they tend to raise blood sugar. Nonetheless, whole grains have their shortcomings, including high carbohydrate content, antinutrients that impair absorption of minerals such as calcium, iron and zinc and lectins that interfere with intestinal and immune function.

Refined grains are missing more than a dozen nutrients found in whole grains, so it's natural to assume that whole grains are higher in nutrients. Unfortunately this isn't the case. Grains do not contain vitamin C, an antioxidant that is important for immunity, protection against allergies, skin health and cancer. Grains do not contain vitamin A or vitamin A precursors such as beta-carotene that is important for the health of mucous membranes. Vitamin A reinforces immunity and helps to prevent both heart disease and cancer. Grains are poor sources of the B vitamins in comparison to the calories they provide. You would have to provide a lot of grain in a dog's diet to provide adequate amounts of vitamin B - yet these vitamins are readily available in meat sources. Antinutrients in grains, called pyridoxine glucosides, reduce vitamin B6, which is important for a healthy immune system and hormonal balance. Vitamin B12 is absent in grains, an important nutrient for nerve and brain health and protection against anemia. Grains contain low levels of bioavailable biotin, which is so necessary in the metabolism of fatty acids. As well, grains alter the metabolism of vitamin D which plays an important role in creating bone health and a strong immune system.

Grains contain low levels of calcium and they also possess other components that contribute to poor calcium metabolism. They are lower in protein and the essential amino acid lysine than animal proteins. Protein is vital for maintaining lean body mass, tissue repair and a strong immune system. Grains do not contain taurine or carnitine. Taurine is a conditionally essential amino acid and carnitine is a vitamin-like nutrient that is needed for energy metabolism. Grains are low in fat, but contain a very high ratio of omega 6 to 3 essential fatty acids. A poor omega 6 to omega 3 ratio promotes insulin resistance and has pro-inflammatory effects.

A high intake of phytate from grains can potentially lead to deficiencies of iron or calcium unless suitable supplementation is provided. Studies have found that retention of zinc in the body is inversely related to the level of phytate in the diet. The phytate in grains not only inhibits the absorption of zinc in the grains themselves but also the zinc available in foods that are eaten with them. Antinutrients such as phytates in grains are believed to have evolved as a defense mechanism so the grains could protect themselves from insects or animals. Besides phytates, other antinutrients in grains have been shown to promote inflammation and induce adverse effects on pancreas cells.

Most of the well-known lectins are derived from grains, legumes and tubers. For example, gluten is a lectin that has been associated with celiac disease. Lectins are glycoproteins that have the potential to interfere with the body's hormonal balance, metabolism and health. Lectins induce structural changes in the intestine that increase gut permeability and contribute to bacterial overgrowth. Once they cross the protective barrier of the gut wall and enter the bloodstream, lectins fool the immune system into reacting to proteins that would not normally be affected, resulting in autoimmune disorders and allergies.

Grains are a poor replacement for the rich fermented stomach ingesta that is part of the wild canid's diet. Grains stick to the villi of the duodenum, the finger-like projections of the intestine, which are vital for the absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream. If nutrients cannot be absorbed, problems arise. This may occur early in life or very late. Some dogs will experience severe problems by the time they are adolescents while the more resilient will not be affected until late in life. But at some point, grains in pet food will likely affect most dogs with their nutrient-blocking capabilities. There is a growing epidemic of chronic health problems in domestic pets that coincides with the feeding of commercial pet foods which contain difficult to digest grains rather than easily digested animal matter. Too high a percentage of grains in a dog's diet may cause nutritional deficiencies and may even create a host of immune-system related diseases.


http://www.urbancarnivore.com/uc_online/pages.cfm?ID=34

[ 本帖最後由 highboycheung 於 2007-2-11 10:55 AM 編輯 ]



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Do Dogs and Cats Need Grains?

Do Dogs and Cats Need Grains?
by Steve Brown and Beth Taylor


Dogs and cats are designed by nature to be primarily meat-eaters.

Dogs are scavengers. Their diet included almost any food that provided calories - but rarely grain. A major factor in the domestication of dogs was the food available at the human garbage dump. The "tamer" wolves, those least afraid of humans, over a period of tens of thousands of years, became our close companions.

According to a recent study by biologists Ray and Lorna Coppinger, the natural diet of dogs included, "Bones, pieces of carcass, rotten greens and fruit, fish guts, discarded seeds and grains, animal guts and heads, some discarded human food and wastes." (1)

However, cats are more selective about food by nature and anatomy. Their ancestral diet consisted of small rodents. Their usefulness to humans had much to do with their eagerness to dispatch the rodents so plentiful around human habitats.

Almost No Grains
The natural diet of both species includes high levels of protein, fats and water, and very little carbohydrates. The "recommended" diet of dry foods, which is the diet of most cats and dogs, is the complete opposite of this natural diet: High in carbohydrate, low in protein, fat, and with almost no water.

Dogs and cats do not need carbohydrates, and most veterinary textbooks agree. Canine and Feline Nutrition: "The fact that dogs and cats do not require carbohydrate is immaterial because the nutrient content of most commercial foods include [carbohydrates]." (2)

Small Animal Clinical Nutrition III, written by the founder of Science Diet (Mark Morris Sr.) and his son (Mark Morris Jr.): "Some question exists regarding the need of dogs and cats for dietary carbohydrate. From a practical sense, the answer to this question is of little importance because there are carbohydrates in most food ingredients used in commercially prepared dog foods."(3)

The Waltham Book of Companion Animal Nutrition: "There is no known minimum dietary requirement for carbohydrate..." (4)

A highly processed, grain-based diet fed to an animal designed to thrive on a meat-based, fresh food diet is very likely to produce symptoms of ill-health over time. Diets to address disease most frequently deal with the symptoms that are the result of a lifetime of inappropriate food, not the true cause of their symptoms. The optimum diet for a dog or a cat should closely resemble their natural diet.

A diet balanced heavily toward grain promotes insulin production and the production of inflammatory chemicals. Over-production of insulin makes it hard for the body to maintain its correct weight, and can lead to diabetes and other problems. An overabundance of inflammatory chemicals means more aches and pains.

Improve the balance of your dog's diet by reducing grain, and you may not need the dangerous non-steroidal and steroid drugs so commonly prescribed for dogs. Readers who follow Dr. Mercola's Total Health Program will agree eating fewer grains means less inflammation! Toxic drugs certainly make animals more comfortable, but will shorten their lives too.

A word of caution: Diabetic animals or any other medical condition making a switch to a more protein-based diet should be under the close supervision of a veterinarian.

Making the Switch to Meat
We believe the best diet for a dog or cat is a fresh, raw meat, bone and vegetable diet. Still, we may not always follow that advice due to financial constraints.

Understanding that every step helps, we hope these suggestions will help you to move toward that goal. Add meat to promote your pet's health: As you add meat to your pet's diet, at the same time, reduce the grain content of your pet's diet.

Add up to 15 percent fresh meat, raw or cooked: This increases the protein and reduces the carbohydrate content of the pet's food, but will not unbalance the levels of any essential nutrient in your animal's diet.

Also, ensure the meat scraps you're adding are mostly meat! Your doggie bag is likely to have much more fat in it than meat. Fat is a very important nutrient but one that needs to be kept in balance. Every fat gram provides double the calories of a gram of protein or carbohydrate.

Avoid senior, lite and diet foods: These varieties usually have fewer calories per cup because manufacturers have increased the fiber and carbohydrates and reduced protein and fat, compared to adult maintenance diets. This is the opposite of what they really need, and has no scientific foundation. Older and overweight pets need meat, not grains.

Add canned food: Good canned food has no grains, and has more protein and fat than dry pet foods. Two good choices we recommend are Nature's Variety and Wellness. "Complete and balanced" canned diets may be fed as an animal's sole diet.

For cats, we highly recommend switching all the way. Cats should not eat dry foods. Urinary tract problems and kidney failure in cats have been closely related to dietary water, which has a different effect on their bodies than the "real" water an animal drinks. It's much better for the cat to eat her food with the water in it! Add a commercially prepared frozen raw diet: As with canned foods, if these are "complete," they can replace all other food fed to your animals.

Research proper homemade meat, bone and vegetable diets and supplement with good dry food to cut cost: Homemade foods can be nutritious and affordable, but must be made correctly. (We'll write more about this in a future article.) This option provides the protein and fat our pets need, reduces the amount of grain they eat, and is affordable by most people.

Feeding your pet a meat- and vegetable-based diet is clearly the best choice to protect and optimize their health. By following these simple recommendations, you will radically reduce the deadly toxins your dog encounters. Read more of our recommendations in See Spot Live Longer. May your Spot live a long, healthy life! Please feel free to get in touch with Steve and Beth for more information.

http://www.campaignfortruth.com/Eclub/240205/Petfood.htm

[ 本帖最後由 highboycheung 於 2007-2-11 10:46 AM 編輯 ]



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No Grains?

"Carnivores cannot maintain long term production of the quantity of amylase enzyme necessary to properly digest and utilize the carbohydrates. In addition, the proteins in grains are less digestive than animal proteins. As a result, the immune system becomes irritated and weakened by the invasion of foreign, non-nutritive protein and carbohydrate particles. Allergies and other chronic immune problems may develop. The pet’s pancreas will do its best to keep up with the demand for amylase. What does this pancreatic stress do over a long time? I don’t know, but it cannot be good. I suspect that dental calculus may be another problem promoted by grain consumption. “ Russell Swift, DVM

No Grains? This is a common question which we at Pets 4 Life and Aunt Jeni’s Home Made are faced with daily. We are very much opposed to having grains in a pet food used everyday. In our opinion from thorough research and by looking at the grain composition itself, grains offer very little nutrition for the dog or cat. Too many times when examining pet food labels, the first ingredient will be meat but when you look at the next three to four ingredients they tend to be grain-based. Therefore, the meat soon becomes a minority with three or four grains composing the diet. Meat is an important ingredient for a dog or cat’s diet. Typically, our cats and dogs are not getting enough meat in their diet. The pet food diets are primarily composed of grains which promotes ill health as discussed below. To feed grains every now and then is fine but to have it as the main dietary ingredient of your pet’s everyday diet is not satisfactory. Grains should be eliminated from the eveyday diet of your pet for reasons of grain composition, nutritional qualities and pet health.

Grains are not a dietary necessity for your dog or cat. Pat McKay states, “I now believe as well as many holistic veterinarians that grains are not necessary for carnivores, because the nutrients found in grains are readily available from the meat, bones and vegetables and supplements already provided in the raw food program.” Grains are composed of soluble and in-soluble fiber. In-soluble fiber is beneficial because it cleanses the colon and keeps the lower digestive tract healthy. Soluble fiber is generally made of starch which lends itself to sugar. Dr. Ian Billinghurst, DVM states, “Unfortunately, starch, once cooked, has a reaction in the body not much different to feeding pure sugar. That is, such products fed over a long period of time are likely to cause any disease which can be attributed to a diet high in soluble carbohydratesþ particularly sugar diabetes. This is particularly true of breads, especially white breads. Of the grains, it is the very popular rice which acts most like sugar.”The excess sugar means that the body has to deal with getting rid of this “energy”. It can store it as fat, or it can use it as energy, or it can get rid of it as “waste”. It means the body has to work harder to use this excess energy. Why put it in the body if it doesn’t need it? The body gains energy much easier from fat. Fat is found in many whole foods such as flaxseed and meat. As well, energy can come from protein. Protein and fat are much better energy sources for your dog or cat. As well, when you have too much sugar in the body, the hormones insulin and glucagon have to work harder to manage the excess. “Unfortunately, rice, the most popular of the grains that people feed their dogs, is the one with the lowest levels of protein, and possibly the poorest quality protein.”, says Dr. Ian Billinghurst, DVM.


The pH of the body is influenced as well. Grains tend to be very alkaline because of increase soluble fiber (sugar). Grains elevate the pH of the body leading to disease. Cats definitely need an acidic urine pH to prevent urinary disorders (FUS/FLUTD). Dogs urine pH should be slightly acidic. pH is essential to establishing homeostasis (balance) in the body tissues and fluids (blood, urine, etc). Excess sugars are also a problem with dental disease. It is not the hard kibble that prevents tartar but rather the sugar-less foods which prevent tartar/tooth decay. This is an important reason why Home Made 4 Life pet food is healthier for our pets. Dogs and cats do not have the teeth or necessary salivary enzyme (amylase) to digest grains properly. If whole grains were consumed they would be excreted whole by the dog or cat which proves how indigestible whole grains can be.

Vegetables provide a large amount of insoluble fiber. Hence we added vegetables into the Home Made 4 Life diet. The vegetables given to our pets, via Home Made 4 Life, are pre-juiced to resemble that which they would have found in the stomach of their kill. Pre-juicing vegetables makes the vegetables more digestible, better assimilated and absorbed within the gut. Grains tend to be highly indigestible without cooking them. When you cook them you alter the chemical composition of the grains and hence lose most of their nutritious qualities. As well, pets can receive some benefit from vegetables because they are chalked full of nutrients. We tried to put only the ingredients into the Home Made 4 Life diet that we felt pets could truly benefit from.

As well grains in our diets are not “natural” they are highly processed. They are not what would be found in the “wild”. This is a huge difference. When I think of food now I think of whole foods. Food which is taken directly from the land and does not enter a manufacturing plant. Wild cats and wild dogs used to forage on grasses and green twigs years before they became domesticated. They did not consume oatmeal porridge, white rice, or cooked grains. There is a huge difference between eating directly from the land and eating directly from the factory. We have forgotten about where food comes from. It is time to reap the benefits of Mother Nature again.

Grains cause too many health problems. According to Dr. Ian Billinghurst, DVM, “There is much circumstancial and direct evidence linking the consumption of both of them (Grains and Legumes) in large amounts to many disease problems suffered by modern dogs. Unfortunately, grain based diets are implicated in all sorts of allergies and other health problems such as arthritis and cancer in human beings.” They can contribute to the ill-effects of allergies, obesity, indigestion, etc. Allergies occur because the body does not recognize the nutrient it is exposed too. Cooking, as mentioned previously, alters the chemical composition of the food. Kibble pet food is over-cooked and highly processed. Grains must be cooked in order to be digested. Therefore, most of the nutrients presented to the dog or cat is in an altered state. The dog’s and cat’s body must try to distinguish whether the food coming into the gut is usuable or toxin. Many times the digestive tract does not recognize the ‘altered’ food given and treats it as a toxin. The body must work at eliminating this toxin. Toxins must exit the body via urine, stool, skin, eyes, nose, mouth, ears, etc. Therefore, the pet owner will see infections, diarrhea, constipation, skin problems, allergies, urinary infections/incontinence, etc. We often think it is just our pet having a bad day when in fact it is our pet eating poor quality pet food which doesn’t promote health but rather degrades health. Why not give our pet’s food which their body recognizes as food? Also, let’s give our pet food which is highly digestible, easily assimilated and absorbed which will allow our pet to play, heal and enjoy life rather than concentrate on digesting it’s food. A homemade diet easily does this and will most definitely build the immune system to prevent disease.

Here are some questions to consider: Can grains build our immune system? No. Can grains build muscle? No. Can grains repair cells? No. Can grains help soothe skin problems? No. Can grains offer dogs or cats proper nutrition? No. Are grains a typical filler in our pet’s diets? Yes. Does the current pet food you feed your dog or cat have 1 grain in it? The answer is most likely Yes. Is the grain in your pet’s food more “whole” (spelt, quinoa, barley, brown rice, etc)? Most likely No. Are the grains we feed our dog or cat “natural”? No. Can your pet derive any nutritional benefit from grains? I will leave this for you to answer.

Grains are not a dietary necessity in a dog or cat’s diet. They cause too many health problems such as allergies, skin problems, diarrhea, alter pH, infections, etc. We should truly consider giving our dog or cat food they can truly derive benefit from. I have seen it time and time again. We eliminate grains from the diet and our pets soon feel and look well. Grains do not provide the nutrition required in fact they provide too many simple carbohydrates in the diet which can lead too dental disease, obesity, diabetes, etc. If we simply provide only the nutrients our pets truly need then our pets will truly be healthy. It is time to truly consider what we feed our pets and go back to nature. After all , our pets do depend on us for their pet food. Please go to your pet food and check the label carefully. If there is one ingredient on that label you are unsure of, please think about why you are feeding it to your pet. If you need further help with deciphering your pet’s food label, please contact Pets 4 Life at info@pets4life.com for help. Your pet is important to us.

This article written by T. Nowak, (c) copyright 1999-2004, all rights reserved. www.pets4life.com

References:
Holistic veterinary and optimum pet nutrition
“The Encyclopedia of Natural Pet Care” by C. J. Puotinen
“Dr. Pitcairn’s Complete Guide to Natural Health for Dogs and Cats” by Richard H. Pitcairn & Susan Hubble Pitcairn
“Reigning Cats and Dogs” Pat McKay
“Give Your Dog A Bone” by Ian Billinghust
“Grow Your Pups With Bones” by Ian Billinghurst
Lew Olson’s article: Dogs - Anatomy of a Carnivore and Dietary Needs
Pet Foods’ Insidious Consequences by Tom Lonsdale

http://www.pets4life.com/index.php?p=research/articles/14






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BARF and the question of GRAIN

When I wrote "Give Your Dog a Bone", I was highly suspicious of grains as dog food, having observed that where grain is fed to dogs (not necessarily as commercial dog food - but even as  'healthy' whole grain human type  foods) there  is a high correlation with a range of degenerative diseases including arthritis, pancreatic disease and even cancer.

My research had lead me to discover numerous problems with grains, but at that time, I had not uncovered material regarding grains that would lead me to completely condemn them. In particular, there was insufficient evidence to condemn these foods on the basis of their starch content.

However, it would now appear that the apparently innocuous starch, widely regarded as a supremely safe, and cheap source of energy, is not the sweet innocent food ingredient it appears to be! It is the emerging information on the role of starch in producing poor health which has for me, put the last nail in the coffin holding the grain.

Our dogs, like ourselves should only eat those foods on which they evolved if they are to gain and maintain maximum health. Over the last several years I have revisited numerous theories regarding the damaging role of soluble carbohydrates in the mammalian body. This information blended perfectly with further information regarding the parallel evolution of dog and man and the association between grain eating and the development of degenerative diseases in both species. By correlating and considering all this information, I could only conclude that the dog is not a grain eater. On that basis, it has become clear to me that unless a particular breed has spent thousands of years on a mostly grain diet, there is very little justification in recommending grains for dogs, and every theoretical and practical reason to condemn it.

The biochemical/physiological basis for problems directly related to the ingestion of grains relates to blood insulin levels in response to blood sugar levels. The ultimate effects of high carbohydrate diets include swings in blood sugar and insulin, insulin resistance and high blood sugar. This in turn results in pathological alterations in eicosanoid production which in turn leads to obesity, hypertension, fluid retention, musculoskeltal, vascular, renal, hepatic, CNS and cardiac disease, and finally in many instances cancer. That is, the ingestion of grain and other starchy foods (including simple sugars of course) produces or helps in a major way to produce most if not all of the degenerative diseases. There are other factors which are involved, particularly when it comes to feeding commercial pet food, including a lack of protective factors, abysmally poor protein quality, the presence of toxins in abundance, and the almost complete absence of healthy fats.

In an evolutionary sense, a wild dog's diet contain almost no grains. They never eat cooked grain. In eating the intestinal contents of their prey they will eat some grain which is usually immature and green. Most certainly they do not eat a totally grain based diet like the modern dog, subjected to a lifetime of dried dog food. Even if their prey had been eating mature seed heads, by the time the grain is consumed, it has been ground to a paste and soaked in the juices of the herbivores intestines. A totally different product to the masses of cooked and processed grains fed to dogs today.

by Ian Billinghust


http://www.barfworld.com/html/learn_more/nograin.shtml



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BARF and the question of GRAIN 中譯版

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BARF and the question of GRAIN

當我寫作『給狗隻一根骨頭』一文時,我已經對使用穀物餵飼犬隻一事,抱非常懷疑的態度。通過觀察利用穀物作為犬隻飼料,我發現此舉與一系列退化性疾病包括關節炎、胰腺疾病甚至癌症有高度的關連性。

我的研究發現有大量的問題和餵飼穀物有關。但當其時,我仍然沒有發現相關材料使我對穀物作為犬隻飼料一事作出反對。尤其是沒有足夠證據在這些食品的澱粉含量的基礎上。

但現在這些被視為超級安全而廉價的能源供應者而且明顯無害的澱粉質,並不如表面看一般。根據最新的資料揭示,澱粉質在導致惡劣的健康方面扮演了非常重要的角色。

我們的狗隻,像我們一樣只進食牠們在進化上可以獲取和維護健康的食物。近幾年來我再參閱大量關於可溶解碳水化合物在損害哺乳動物身體所扮演的角色的理論。這些資料與有關人和犬隻的平衡進化及兩個物種在食用五穀和退化疾病的關聯上的資料非常吻合。通過考慮及溶合所有的資料,我只可以作出狗並不是食用五穀的動物。在這個基礎上,非常清楚指出除非某一個物種在通過數以萬年計使用五穀飼養否則很難建議使用五穀餵飼犬隻。並且每一個理論和實際的原因都對此做法作出責難。

在生化或生理基礎的問題上,血液內胰島素水平和血糖水平與食用五穀有直接的關係。高碳水化合物飲食的最終作用包括使到胰島素增加以緩解血液中高血糖的出現。這反過來導致肥胖病的eicosanoid製造「Eicosanoid"係指由20C脂肪酸經氧化代謝而形成的一群具多樣生物活性的調節物質。Eicosanoids 在體內具有類似荷爾蒙的作用,參與血壓調控、凝血作用、生育、免疫功能、發炎反應、胃液分泌等作用。」。其引致高血壓, 水腫, 骨骼, 血管, 腎臟, 肝, CNS和心臟病的疾病, 並且最後在許多情況下引發癌症的出現。這就是餵飼五穀和食用其他澱粉質食品(包括糖)產生大部份退化疾病的最主要原因。還有其他的因素導致此,特別是食用商業的狗糧,包括缺乏防護因素,低品質的蛋白質,大量毒素的存在, 而且幾乎完全缺乏健康的脂肪。

在進化的角度上,野生狗隻的飲食幾乎不含五穀。牠們絕不食用煮熟的五穀。唯有在進食獵物的小腸時才可以吃到一些未成熟和綠色的五穀。基本上牠們不會像現代的犬隻一樣進食全穀類的食品。即使他們的獵物吃了成熟的種子,當五穀被消化的時候,它們會被研磨成塊狀和浸泡在草食動物小腸的汁液中。和今天餵飼狗隻所進食的經過處理和煮熟的穀類完全不同的產品。

by Ian Billinghust



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不要因為自己的無知,去傷害愛你最深的狗狗,牠也是需要您不斷的灌溉成長的。


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No Grains? 中譯本

向五穀說不?
Russell Swift, DVM說:「食肉動物不能長期保持澱粉酶的生產量來消化和利用碳水化合物。再者,和動物蛋白質比較,在五穀中的蛋白質是難於消化。結果就是由於受到異物的入侵(即非營養蛋白質和碳水化合物微粒),因而減弱了免疫系統的作用。由此引致慢性過敏免疫症等問題的出現。因碳水化合物的增加,寵物的胰腺不斷生產澱粉酶來處理增加的碳水化合物。長遠來說此舉對胰腺做成的壓力有什麼後果呢?我不知道,但總的來說一定是不好。我估計牙石的出現是另一個因食用穀物產生的問題。 」

向五穀說不?這是一個我們每天都要面對的問題。我們非常反對在寵物食品日當中加入五穀。我們認為,從研究和深入探討五穀的成份來看,穀物本身只能提供極小量的的營養給貓和狗。每當審核寵物食品的標籤時,其第一個都是肉類,但當你繼續看下去時,之後的三、四種成份都是以五穀為基礎的。因此,肉類成了寵物食品組成部份的少數,反之穀物變為大多數。肉類是狗和貓的膳食中最重要的元素。但通常來講我們的貓和狗都不能通過食物當中吸收足夠的肉類。寵物食品飼料最主要組成部份是穀物,但這種做法是不健康的,下文將會就此作出討論。餵飼穀物不要緊,但以它作為寵物的日常飲食中主要的成分並不理想。基於穀物的成份,營養的質量及寵物的健康來看,我們應該避免在寵物的日常飲食中使用五穀。

五穀並不是你的狗和貓的日常飲食中的必需品。Pat McKay 表示「我現在和很多獸醫一樣相信穀物並不是食肉動物的必需品。因為穀物所含有的營養已經可以通過肉類、骨頭、蔬菜和補充品中獲得。這些都已經包含在生肉膳食中。」五穀的成份中包含了可溶性和非可溶性纖維。非可溶性纖維有利於清潔結腸和保持下消化道健康。可溶性纖維由澱粉以來,最終會轉化為糖。Dr. Ian Billinghurst, DVM 表示,「不幸的是, 煮熟後的澱粉, 在身體中產生的反應與進食糖是沒有分別的。即是在相當長的時期內以可溶性炭水化合物餵飼寵物,這樣會引致牠們會患上很多的疾病,特別是高糖飲食糖尿病。特別是用麵包餵飼,尤其是白麵包。對於五穀而言,大米在身體中的作用與糖最為相似。」過剩的糖份意味著身體需要解決這種『能量』。它可以儲存為脂肪,又或是可以使用它作為能量,或者可以當『廢物』清除。這意味著身體需要更加努力去處理這些多餘的能源。若果身體不需要它為什麼要將它放進去呢?身體是比較容易從脂肪中獲得能量。脂肪可以在許多健康的食品中找到,例如亞麻籽和肉類。而且,能量可以來自蛋白質。對於貓和狗來說蛋白質和脂肪是比較好的能量供應者。而且當身體有太多糖份,必須製造更多的胰島素和胰高血糖素以處理多餘的糖份。Dr. Ian Billinghurst, DVM 說:「可惜大米,一種最受歡迎的狗飼料,卻是最低層次的蛋白質,和可能是品質最差的蛋白質。」

同樣身體的酸鹼度也受到影響。因為可溶性纖維(糖份)的增加,所以穀物往往傾向非常鹼性。穀物令到身體變得更加鹼性,因而導致疾病的出現。貓需要偏向酸性尿液以防止泌尿的失調(FUS/FLUTD)。狗的尿液則是微酸性的。 酸鹼值對於建立身體的組織和體液(血液、尿液等)上的穩態(平衡)是非常重要。過量的糖份也會導致牙齒疾病的出現。這不是粗糙的硬物防止牙石的形成而是少糖的膳食可以防止牙石和蛀牙的產生。貓和狗都沒有合適的牙齒或必要的唾液消化酶(澱粉酶)用來消化穀物。如果貓和狗食用了完整的穀粒,牠們會將它完整的排出。這說明了穀物是如何的難以消化。

蔬菜提供了大量的非可溶性纖維。因此我們將蔬菜加入手作膳食中。事經過泡浸的蔬菜比較用易消化而且令到腸道的吸收更好。未經烹煮的穀物是非常之難消化。.當烹煮的過程中穀物的化學成分會發生變化,從而喪失大部分的營養。而且寵物能從蔬菜中獲得一些好處,因為蔬菜是充滿營養的。

更甚的是我們用於餵飼的穀物並非「天然」。他們是經過高度加工。他們和「野生」的已然不一樣了。這中間有一個很大的分別。.當我想到食物時,我想的是健康的食物。食物應該是直接由土地以來並且不曾經過食品加工廠處理。野貓和野狗在馴化前,牠們在草和綠枝中尋找食物。他們從不食用燕麥粥、白米飯或煮熟的穀物。食物來自大地和來自工廠是有很大的差別。我們已經淡忘食品來自那裡。現在正是時候再次從大自然之母中穫益。

穀物造成太多的健康問題。.根據Dr. Ian Billinghurst, DVM所講:「有許多證據指出食用穀物和豆類是引致大量現代的狗隻患上疾病的原因。不幸的是以穀物作為基礎的膳食與各種過敏症和其他健康問題,例如人類的癌症、關節炎有關。」食用穀物是過敏症、肥胖、消化不良等疾病的其中一個成因。過敏症的出現是因為身體不承認它吸收的是營養。如前所述, 烹煮改變了穀物的化學成分。寵物食品是過份烹煮和經過高度加工。穀物必須煮熟才可以被消化。因此狗和貓吸收的大部分養份已經改變了。狗和貓的身體必須設法辨別進入腸道的食物是有用的或是有毒的。很多時候消化道不懂辨別已經改變的食物反而將其當作是一種毒素。身體則必須努力去消除這種毒素。毒素必須經由尿液、糞便、皮膚、眼睛、鼻子、嘴、耳朵等排出體外。故此寵物主人常常看到寵物感染腹瀉、便秘、皮膚病、過敏症、尿道感染和失禁等。我們常覺得這只是我們寵物的不幸。但其實這只是由於我們餵飼了一些不會令到身體健康反而使到身體更加不健康的寵物食品。我們為什麼不讓寵物進食一些牠們身體確認為食物的食品呢?.同時讓我們的寵物進食一些容易消化和吸收的食物。這樣可以讓我們寵物盡情玩樂和享受生活而不是只專注於消化食物。手作膳食很容易達到這個目標而且可以幫助免疫系統防止疾病。

這裡有幾條問題我們必須加以考慮:穀物可以幫助我們的免疫系統嗎?不能。穀物可以協助建立肌肉嗎?不能。穀物可以協助修復細胞嗎?不能。穀物可以緩解皮膚的問題嗎?不能。穀物可以向狗和貓能提供適當的營養嗎?不能。穀物是不是寵物膳食中的主要成份?對。請問您目前使用的寵物食品有沒有穀物在其中?答案很可能是「對」的。在你的寵物食品中的穀物是否「健康」 (如藜、大麥、糙米等)? M答案基本上是否定的。我們用來餵飼狗或貓的穀物是否「天然」? No.  不是。你寵物能夠從穀物中吸取任何營養?我會讓你自己去回答這一個問題。

穀物不是狗和貓飲食中的需品。它們造成太多的健康問題,如過敏性皮膚病、腹瀉、酸鹼值的改變,感染等。我們要認真考慮給予狗或貓的食物,牠們能否從中受益。我見過一次又一次。當我們從膳食中減去了穀物,很快你會感受到我們的寵物變得更加好。穀物不能提供身體所需的營養。在膳食中它們提供太多簡單的碳水化合物。這些東西會引致牙齒疾病、導致過份肥胖,糖尿病等。如果只提供寵物真正需要的養分,我們的寵物會獲得真正健康。這時候我們真的要考慮我們用什麼東西餵飼我們的寵物並且是時候回歸到天然的食物了。畢竟我們的寵物要依靠我們供應食物。請您仔細檢查你的寵物食品的標籤。如果有一種成分是你就無法確知的,那麼請你想想為什麼要用它來餵飼你的寵物。



實用相關搜尋: Spa 寵物 獸醫 清潔 檢查 食物 眼睛 化學
不要因為自己的無知,去傷害愛你最深的狗狗,牠也是需要您不斷的灌溉成長的。


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Why do I need to separate certain food items, like RMBs, veggies and grains, and why can't I feed them together?
In Pat Lazarus book, "Keep Your Dog Healthy the Natural Way," under the topic of food combining he states:
"How you combine food groups can be crucial to your dog's health. Why? The digestive organs secret enzymes to break down food so it can be properly used by the body. When carbohydrates and proteins are eaten at the same time, the protein enzymes go to work first, and the digestion of carbohydrates must wait. While the carbohydrates are waiting around to be digested, they ferment and release toxins in the body.
Proper food combining might more aptly be called not combining foods: Give only meat (or other heavy proteins such as eggs or milk) at one meal; give carbohydrates (fruit & grains) for the other meal. Vegetables, though may be given with either grains or heavy proteins."
He goes on to mention this can also help in preventing pancreatitus.

Also, grains and meats should not be fed together but veggies can be feed with either, with no loss of nutrients.  Fruits, except apples, should be feed alone and at least twenty minutes before or after anything else.   


Is it o.k. to feed grains?
Grains are not a natural food for dogs. It is not something they would eat in the wild. Those grains they would have access to  would be in small quantities eaten from the stomachs of prey animals who had (in the right season) eaten some grasses that  had seeded. These grains would also not look like our modern grains - more like wild rice (check it out at the supermarket and  compare to domestic types).  
Grains are also full of carbohydrates which can be easily converted to sugars.  Cancer cells feed on sugars and it is believed  that by decreasing the amount of carbohydrate in the diet, we may greatly reduce the risk of cancer (which is a growing  problem among modern dogs).
So, in answer to your question, yes, grains can be fed; however, please keep the following in mind (when feeding grains), taken directly from a Dr. Billinghurst seminar:   grains are not a natural food for dogs; dogs do not, in fact, need carbohydrates; carbohydrates are easily converted into sugars which feed cancer. Remove the carbs and the cancer has less/nothing to feed on; and grains are one of the major causes of allergies in dogs, and can also cause flatulence (gas..PHEW!!!)!.
I would suggest you read more on grains at the Grain Free Pets website.    The page now includes a basic description of yeast infections, why they occur, what are the diet recommendations, why didn't my vet diagnose this problem.... as well as links on candida.  



實用相關搜尋: Spa
寵辱不驚,看庭前花開花落;去留無意,望天邊雲卷雲舒。

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No Grain, Please! 中譯本

拜託,不要五穀!
我們知道狗隻作為食肉動物,牠的牙齒只之用來撕裂肉類並不像食草動物般可以利用牙齒磨碎食物。狗隻的消化系統用來消化肉類是非常理想。因牠擁有一個簡單的胃和短短的而且帶有酸性的腸道。相對於肉類和骨頭,蔬菜和五穀對於狗隻來說是不容易消化的。某種程度上狗隻雖然可以有點勉強適應碳水化合物的飲食,但牠的身體卻寧願吸收動物性蛋白質的食物。

在商業飼料和手作膳食方面,五穀佔據了相當一部分的位置。因為在能量供應上, 相對於脂肪或蛋白質來說, 五穀是比較便宜的。 所以在寵物的乾糧上, 利用五穀是非常普遍。在狗隻的膳食中,如果動物性蛋白質不足夠,會引致身體產生一系列的毛病, 如皮膚和慢性疾病可能包括耳朵感染,生殖系統、心臟、腎臟、膀胱、甲狀腺和腎上腺失調。事實上狗隻是沒有碳水化合物的飲食要求。牠們必需要有'脂肪酸和氨基酸(蛋白質),但對於碳水化合物方面,沒有已知的必要性存在。然而,狗隻在新陳代謝上是需要葡萄糖,但可以通過身體產生或通過飲食吸收。在代謝途徑上,肝臟和腎臟可以利用養分產生葡萄糖。因此碳水化合物來源的飼料是沒有必要的。如果能夠攝取足夠的蛋白質和脂肪,身體就可以提供必要的葡萄糖。

有許多的文章提及五穀的營養價值。五穀的製品在身體中的作用跟糖是沒有分別。換句話說,在進食後它們很容易被分解成為血糖。即是他們擁有高血糖評級。在另一方面蔬菜中除了根菜之外,土豆和大部份的水果都是中至低度血糖評級。食品提升血糖量因而產生自由基。自由基會令到身體加速老化。過量的糖份會損害身體中的蛋白質,還令到身體的組織老化。研究表明基於低碳水化合物的飲食可以改善血糖代謝。不過用於衡量食物對血糖水平的影響的血糖指數,有時是被高估的。如果想真真正正了解各種碳水化合物的害處,你需要知道是不同食物的碳水化合物供應量。食物中的碳水化合物的密度是指可消化碳水化合物與食物中纖維的重量的差額。如果你評估牠們的血糖指數,碳水化合物由碳水化合物密度糧食製品成品率幾乎比其他任何食物.

全五穀是否比精製五穀好呢?乍看似乎是,全五穀含有更多的養分和調節血液所需的纖維。由於其纖維含量高,血糖指數亦較低。五穀加工越多,就越容易令血糖提高。儘管如此,全五穀的缺點,包括碳水化合物含量高、抗營養素損害礦物質的吸收如鈣,鐵、鋅和凝集,此舉會干擾腸道和免疫系統的功能。

在精製五穀欠缺了十多種營養素,自然以為全五穀的養分較高。可惜事實並非如此.五穀中不含維他命C。維他命C是一種抗氧化劑,對於免疫力非常重要。它有助保持皮膚健康,預防過敏症和癌症。五穀中不含維他命A或維生素A前體如β胡蘿蔔素。它對於維持黏膜的健康是十分重要。維生素A可以強化免疫和有助於防止心臟病和癌症。相對於供應卡路里而言,五穀只能提供少量的維生素B相比。為了向你的狗隻提供足夠的維生素B,你只好在牠們的膳食中加進大量的給你的五穀,然而肉類已經是這些維生素的重要來源。在五穀中的抗糧苷可以減少身體中維生素B6的吸收,但維生素B6對於一個健康的免疫系統和內分泌平衡是非常重要。五穀中缺乏維生素B12,維生素B12可以維護神經及腦部的健康並且預防貧血。五穀中含有少量的生物性維生素H,此種維生素H在脂肪酸的代謝中,扮演了非常重要的角色。而且,五穀改變了維生素D在身體中的代謝,維生素D對於建立一個健康的骨骼和強壯的抵抗系統起著重要的作用。

五穀中含有微量的鈣,而且五穀還擁有其他成分減弱身體中鈣的代謝。和動物性蛋白質相比,五穀中少量的蛋白質和必需氨基酸賴氨酸。蛋白質對於維持身體的肌肉、組織修復和強壯的免疫系統十分重要。五穀或不含牛磺酸或是肉鹼。牛磺酸是一種必需的氨基酸和肉鹼是一種類似維生素的營養是能量代謝所必需的。五穀是低脂肪,但含有相當高的比例的omega 6 和 3。低比例的omega 6 和 3促進胰島素抵抗力和有抗炎症的效果。

高植酸的攝入令到身體缺乏足夠的鐵和鈣,除非加進適當的補充劑。研究發現留在體內的鋅與飲食中植酸的水平有關。在五穀中的植酸抑制身體中對鋅的吸收。例如植酸已演變為一種防禦機制,保護五穀免受昆蟲或動物的侵害。除了植酸外五穀中其他的抗養份已被證明令到身體容易發炎和對胰腺細胞有不良影響。

多數知名凝集從五穀、豆類、塊莖中找到。例如,谷朊是凝集的一種,它和腹腔疾病有關。凝集是糖源蛋白,它干擾身體內分泌的平衡,代謝和健康。凝集素誘導腸道結構發生變化,增加腸道滲透性和腸道細菌增生。一旦凝集越過腸壁進入血液,它令到免疫系統和蛋白質發生反應,造成自身免疫性疾病和過敏。

對於食肉動物的飲食中,五穀是一個最差的替代品。五穀會粘著十二指腸的絨毛,十二指腸的絨毛如手指般,在吸收營養到血液中扮演了一個十分重要的色。.如果養分不能被吸收,問題就會出現。這可能出現在生命的早期或晚期。有些狗隻在年青時影響都不是太大,而到晚年時牠們就會出現很大的問題。但在某一點來看,在寵物食品中的五穀會影響到狗隻吸收營養的能力。在慢性疾病日益流行的情況下,恰逢餵飼商業寵物飼料時,當中含有大量難於消化的五穀而不是容易消化的動物食品。在狗隻飲食中太高比例的五穀,可能造成狗隻營養不良,甚至引起一連串有關免疫系統的疾病。






不要因為自己的無知,去傷害愛你最深的狗狗,牠也是需要您不斷的灌溉成長的。


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