查看完整版本 : ▲寵物全方位解說篇▲

minibabyqq 2006-12-14 22:57

[b][size=4][color=#cc37fa]所有有關 "寵物全方位解說" 資料請在此發表,為方便會員查看相關資料,若成為精品文章,將獲加10 -50分,此主題[/color][color=red]嚴禁發表任何討論及非相關主題回覆。[/color]

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[/color][/size][u][color=blue][size=2]部份資料來自各網站,多謝原創者 [/size][/color][/u][/b]


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[size=3][color=blue]狗免疫系統
狗疫苗
抗藥性overuse 在狗
什麼是Homeopathy?
草本寵物療程
草本補救
Ω3 和-6 脂肪酸
抗生素- 暗藏的危險
茶樹油為寵物療程
類固醇
氨基葡萄糖Sulphate
水療法的好處 (狗)
秀麗神話: BOTOX 殺害動物
關於接種資訊和關心[/color][/size]
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[size=3][color=darkorange]關於疫苗抗體
營養和免疫系統
老化過程& 我們怎麼能幫助   
狗和貓看見什麼?
BARF 飲食
自然寵物營養: BARF
脂肪酸為過敏& 乾性皮膚在狗
犬針刺醫學
花植物補救在動物中
甲狀腺問題在狗
NEEM 在獸醫用途
Ehrlichiosis 疾病
腎臟疾病
二甲氧基苯青黴素抗性
犬出生病毒疾病[/color][/size]
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[size=3][color=magenta]抗發炎藥物
FOODBORNE AFLATOXICOSIS
尿分析的重要性
什麼是Addison 的疾病
危害健康從蚤和壁虱產品
甲狀腺
膀胱癌
糖尿病
BARTONELLOSIS疾病
帚形菌屬OTITIS EXTERNA
淋巴球過多症
鈣混亂 CALCIUM DISORDERS
犬貧血症
標準根運河療法 STANDARD ROOT CANAL THERAPY  
重要PULPOTOMY VITAL PULPOTOMY  [/color][/size]
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[size=3][color=darkorchid]一般Patellar Luxation 資訊
先天心臟病疾病體檢
退化聯接疾病(骨關節炎)
關節炎& 其它聯合疾病的起因和管理
Lumbosacral 狹窄(Cauda Equina 綜合症狀)
Luxating 臏骨 Luxating Patella  
白內障   Cataracts
攝護腺擴大 Prostate Enlargement   
Osteosarcoma (骨癌)
腫瘤  
狗瘟 Distemper   
青光眼  Glaucoma
注意眼睛上的顏色變化Pigmented Ocular Masses
系統高血壓   Systemic Hypertension
視網膜退化    Retinal Degeneration[/color][/size]
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[size=3][color=green]Scleritis 和 Episcleritis
角膜潰瘍  Persistent Corneal Ulcers
多個骨髓瘤-- 視覺顯示
心臟病
二尖瓣不足: 心力衰竭的起因
Health & Veterinary Care for Older Dogs
腎臟疾病: 治療
完全血液計數(CBC)
腎臟疾病: 起因、標誌, 和診斷
真菌感染
化學測試  Chemistry Panels & Tests
癲癇症  Epilepsy & Seizures
抗氧劑作為防腐劑在狗食裡
Myasthenia gravis   
狗窩咳嗽  Kennel Cough[/color][/size]
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[size=3][color=red]Laryngeal 痲痺   
氣管崩潰  Tracheal Collapse
Herpes 病毒傳染
心臟解剖學& 發展
呼吸系統的解剖學& 作用
Hemodialysis 為伴侶動物
肛門封墊(Sacs) Anal Glands (Sacs)  
Trombiculiasis (Chiggers)   
Pneumonyssoides (鼻小蜘蛛)   
Demodectic Mange   
Cushing 的疾病(Hyperadrenocorticism)   
睪丸腫瘤
牙冠療法
NON-VITAL (DEAD) TEETH   
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[size=3][color=darkolivegreen]ENDODONTIC 疾病   
下頜破裂
ORAL-NASAL FISTULA   
正牙學器具
牙周疾病
先天心臟病疾病體檢
VITAL PULPOTOMY  
一般手肘發育異常資訊
Osteochondritis Dissecans   
類風濕病的關節炎(免疫斡旋的疾病)  
Ruptured Anterior Cruciate Ligament   
泌尿無節制 Urinary Incontinence   
白內障分類
Osteosarcoma (骨癌)
白內障手術[/color][/size]



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[size=3][color=lime]腎臟移植
Coccidia (球蟲病): 腹瀉的起因
雄激素小組促合成類固醇
Baylisascaris procyonis (Raccoon Roundworm)  
腎小球性腎炎 Glomerulonephritis   
銅存貯疾病(銅Hepatotoxicosis)
對脊髓作用的Electrophysiological 評估
NEUROMUSCULAR 混亂影響幼小狗和貓   
EXTERNAL FIXATOR TO CORRECT SPINAL FRACTURE/LUXATION   
Cervicothoracic 脊髓綜合症狀聯繫了 Ehrlichia canis
狗 顯示KL5UVER-BUCY SYNDROME-LIKE 行為
Megakaryocytes 在狗   
Opioids-- 鎮痛藥可利用   
NSAID 為慢性地痛苦的患者   
KETAMINE-鎮痛藥藥物[/color][/size]   



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[size=3][color=#cc37fa]血壓管理
ISOPATHIC-HOMOEOPATHIC 治療
飲食建議為狗
草本為動物(PAT 1 )   
草本為動物(PAT 2)   
自然變質藥對疫苗
手術和自然療法
類固醇 | Heartworm | 接種 | 抗生素
家庭寵物補救
Euthansia 和正確的時間
Cancer and Auto-Immune   
TTouch 療法   
咳嗽的評估在狗以心臟
心力衰竭的臨床方法
慢性Valvular 心臟病在狗[/color][/size]
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[size=3][color=darkorange]似犬心肌病Canine Cardiomyopathy   
打噴嚏和Snorting
呼吸困難和咳嗽在小動物
呼吸道Endoscopy.A 視覺評估
細菌肺炎的診斷和管理
犬慢性支氣管炎診斷和療法   
肺真菌病 Pulmonary Mycoses
慢性腹瀉Chronic Diarrhea   
為什麼臨床工作者應該使用他們
處理的慢性痛苦: NSAIDs Managing Chronic Pain: The NSAIDs   
狗和貓在感染腹瀉診斷
犬和貓的食道瘤形成
藥物和肝臟病
溶血貧血症診斷
溶血貧血症的管理
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[color=black][size=3]食道藥物效力
Hypercalcemia 在狗: 對診斷和治療的方法  
治療複雜的糖尿病
犬甲狀腺機能不足
臨床Hemopoiesis Clinical Hemopoiesis   
臨床分析儀 Errors and Pitfalls Associated with Clinical Analyzers   
血液學分析儀
緊急呼吸評估
通風筒導致的傷害
斷絕從通風的支持
Coagulopathies𣶷OTAL
物理療法在獸醫方面
令人沮喪脊髓疾病
Cranio 大腦精神創傷
大腦和髓心非創傷血管疾病



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[size=3][color=royalblue]獸醫脊髓手術
骨髓和它的解釋的實際應用
子宮頸椎骨的透視
頭蓋骨Cruciate 短少
動物按摩脊柱治療  
口頭解剖學和繪製
犬眼睛的被繼承的疾病
眼科考試
視覺表面的疾病
眼疾病和手術
Glaucoma.Is 有效的治療
切片檢查法原則和外科腫瘤學
放射治療
犬淋巴瘤預斷因素和治療
關心在動物腫瘤學方面

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[size=3][color=lime]內分泌瘤形成的管理
介紹畸齒矯正術
一種可移動的正牙學器具為狗  
口頭射線照相和影片解釋
牙齒預防
牙周疾病的治療
基本技術在牙提取
牙周療法
外科提取
緊急Endodontics 和Pulpotomy Emergency
標準Endodontic 技術
飲食的作用在牙周疾病
Endodontic 解剖學和診斷
打開尖頂Endodontics
Dentigerous 囊腫在狗

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[size=3][color=olive]Odontogenic 腫瘤
牙撕裂
牙發展干擾
口頭Proliferative 損害在狗
去骨Augmentation.SOTAL
牙齒材料
補齒術
冠加長
鼻和靜脈竇疾病
口頭腫瘤手術
口頭腫瘤
口頭破裂修理
麻醉的神經塊和口頭痛覺缺失
食物過敏在狗
Sebaceous 腺炎

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[size=3][color=dimgray]獸醫皮膚學方面
COXOFEMORAL LUXATION 的治療的一個新技術在狗  
BETA-AMINOPROPIONITRIL 的作用
OMENTECTOMY 的評估在狗  
泌尿和清液蛋白質改變在狗  
一項HISTOPATHOLOGIC 研究  
狗和它的重要在糖尿病的管理  
脛骨被延遲的聯合的治療  
Malassezia 皮炎在狗  
蚤過敏療法Dermatitis.SOTAL  
犬遺傳性過敏症  
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[[i] 本帖最後由 minibabyqq 於 2007-2-1 03:00 AM 編輯 [/i]]

minibabyqq 2006-12-20 03:44

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[color=Magenta][size=5][b]狗免疫系統[/b][/size][/color]

促進的狗免疫系統
促進 免疫系統 為適當的工作生物化學的互作用是重要對您的狗 健康。免疫系統堅持地保護身體免受 寄生生物, 細菌, 黴菌, 或病毒被傳染的細胞。促進您的狗 免疫系統 將幫助他的身體淹沒細菌, 毀壞毒素, 或殺害病毒。
Iinfected 細胞生產干擾素和其它cytokines, 可能發信號接觸未感染的細胞增強他們的防禦, 使他們損壞侵略者。

在一個 微弱的免疫系統, 細菌、病毒、微有機體, 和毒素可能通過免疫保衛的細胞, 和引起 混亂。
一個被降下的 免疫系統 作用在狗導致深刻或慢性真菌、酵母傳染、eczema 、 demodectic mange、食物過敏、關節炎、耳朵傳染、慢慢地癒合創傷, 或生育力混亂。

營養缺乏 是免疫系統缺乏的突出的起因在狗。動物研究員最近顯示出, 營養缺乏在一個世代可能影響 免疫系統 作用在最新世代, 既使他們不營養短少。

因而, 一粗劣的 營養 或連續哺養錯誤 狗食飲食 減弱您的狗 免疫系統。

促進您的狗免疫系統:

痕量元素、礦物, 和維生素的平衡的水平被要求 促進您的狗 免疫系統單獨與侵略的細菌和病毒戰鬥。

未加工的食物飲食 為狗是必要 促進免疫系統, 因為所有食肉動物胃和新陳代謝被設計消化 未加工的食物。商業狗食是營養負擔, 狗消化系統無法應付與。對不自然的乾食物的用途, 和在被處理的, 化工改進的 商業狗食 減弱您的狗 免疫系統。野生動物被折磨我們的被馴化的狗的混亂不困擾!

滿足您的狗營養要求和 促進免疫系統, 健康狗食 所有成份 必須是協同作用的, 意味他們應該提高各其他作用並且能獨自工作。
如果您對營養價值, 和生物化學的過程不是肯定的在身體, 增加優質 營養補充 對於包含vitamin.b.complex 、葉酸、維生素C 、鋅 、鎂 、硒、碘、生物素、echinacea ,和 鉀的您的狗食。

Neem
Neem (neem 茶, neem 葉子的) 最重要的特徵是, 促進淋巴細胞和細胞免疫系統。 Neem 促進T 細胞的生產, 防禦您的狗身體當攻擊對免疫系統發生。

維生素C
維生素C 是關鍵的為促進您的狗免疫系統。 維生素C 有根本抗病毒和抗菌活動, 但它的主要作用是主人抵抗的改善。

Ω脂肪酸
Ω脂肪酸是重要為您的狗免疫系統、皮膚和外套健康。 Ω脂肪酸 促進食物運用和發電。 晚櫻草油 是多數有效的(Ω6 脂肪酸), 被亞麻油和魚油(Ω3 脂肪酸)跟隨。


缺鋅 增加傳染風險。研究表示, 鋅補充可能 促進免疫系統, 促進創傷癒合, 和幫助開發白細胞。

Boosting the immune system for proper working biochemical interactions is important to your dogs wellness. The immune system is persistently protecting the body from parasites, bacterial, fungal, or virus-infected cells. Boosting your dogs immune system will help his body overwhelm bacteria, destroy toxins, or kill viruses.
Iinfected cells produce interferon and other cytokines, which can signal contiguous uninfected cells to intensify their defenses, enabling them to damage invaders.

In a weak immune system, bacteria, viruses, micro organisms, and toxins can pass the immune defending cells, and generate disorders.
A lowered immune system function in dogs results in acute or chronic fungi, yeast infections, eczema, demodectic mange, food allergy, arthritis, ear infection, slowly healing wounds, or fertility disorders.

Nutrient deficiency is an eminent cause of immune system deficiency in dogs. Animal researchers have recently demonstrated that nutrient deficiency in one generation can affect immune system function in later generations, even if they are not nutrient deficient.

Thus, a poor nutrition or continuous feeding the wrong dog food diet weakens your dogs immune system.

Boosting your dogs immune system:

Balanced levels of trace elements, minerals, and vitamins are required to boost the immune system of your dogs to fight invading bacteria and viruses by itself.

Raw food diet for dogs is necessary to boost the immune system, because stomach and metabolism of all carnivores is designed to digest raw foods. Commercial dog food is a nutritional burden that dogs digestive system is unable to cope with. The use of unnatural dry food, and over-processed, chemically enhanced commercial dog foods weakens your dogs immune system. Wild animals are not plagued by the disorders that afflict our domesticated dogs!

To satisfy your dogs nutritional requirements and boost the immune system, all ingredients of wellness dog food have to be synergistic, meaning they should enhance each others effect as well as being able to work by themselves.
If you are not sure about the nutritional values, and biochemical processes in the body, add a high-quality nutritional supplement to your dogs food which contains vitamin B complex, folic acid, vitamin C, zinc, magnesium, selenium, iodine, biotin, echinacea, and potassium.

Neem
The most important characteristic of Neem (neem tea, neem leaf) is, boosting both the lymphocyte and cell-mediated immune system. Neem boosts the production of T-cells, which defense your dogs body when attacks to the immune system occur.

Vitamin C
Vitamin C is crucial for boosting your dogs immune system. Vitamin C has essential antiviral and antibacterial activity, but its main effect is improvement of host resistance.

Omega Fatty Acids
Omega fatty acids are important for your dogs immune system, skin and coat health. Omega fatty acids boost food utilization and energy production. Evening primrose oil is most effective (omega 6 fatty acid), followed by flaxseed oil and fish oil (omega 3 fatty acid).

Zinc
Zinc deficiency increases the risk of infection. Studies show that zinc supplements can boost the immune system, promote wound healing, and help develop white blood cells.

minibabyqq 2006-12-20 03:45

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[color=Magenta][size=5][b]狗疫苗[/b][/size][/color]

接種是極端有益的事務,
對疫苗製造商和對經銷商。

接種的目的將保護您的狗免受潛在地致命傳染由病毒譬如慍怒, 狂犬病, 和其他人。但是, 和以任一醫療過程, 我們要要求簡單並且直接問題, "它是安全的嗎? 它是有效的嗎? 做好處勝過風險?"

"助推器" 接種, 照原樣今天被實踐, 總不是有效的, 和頻繁地有有害副作用, 或短或長期。以對組合的用途
(4 在1, 6 在1) 年復一年被重覆的疫苗, 這些副作用頻率和嚴肅在我們的狗巨大增加了。
毫不奇怪, 大多問題介入 免疫系統。終究, 免疫系統是什麼疫苗被設計刺激。但他們做如此用可能淹沒的一種非常不自然的方法並且混淆 免疫系統。身體也許反應過度對通常無害的物質以過敏和其它皮膚混亂, 甚至生產抗體對本身(自動免疫的疾病) 。同時, 身體也許是慢吞吞在反應它應該reject, 譬如共同的病毒, 細菌、真菌, 和寄生生物的那些事。這可能導致增加的感受性對深刻傳染, 慢性腸類圓蟲問題, 或更加退化的格, 癌症。

助推器接種是多餘的。研究現在表示, 這些接種大概是有效的許多年和在生活。被接種的動物不需要任何助推器。

所有獸醫學校在北美洲改變的接種協議:

資深狗項目的時事通訊的最近編輯報告關於消滅接種曾經擴展的趨向為成人狗, 除了狂犬病, 哪裡需要由州法。
所有27 所獸醫學校在北美洲是在改變他們的協議過程中為接種的狗和貓。這新指南在研究中:

"狗 免疫系統 充分地成熟在6 個月。如果修改過的活病毒(MLV) 疫苗被給在6 個月年齡以後, 它導致免疫, 是好的在寵物(即, 似犬慍怒、parvo, 和似貓的慍怒的) 生活。如果其它MLV 疫苗被給一年後, 抗體從第一疫苗中立化第二疫苗的抗原並且有一點點或沒有作用。滴定量' 不促進' 亦不是更多存儲單元導致。
不僅是每年助推器為parvo 並且慍怒多餘的, 他們服從狗對過敏反應和免疫斡旋的溶血貧血症潛在的風險。沒有科學文獻支持標籤要求為MLV 的每年管理vaccines” 。

如果, 為任何原因, 您決定您必須接種您的狗, 我會提出以下建議:

避免多值性(組合) 疫苗
分開地給parvo 與慍怒
從未給狂犬病疫苗在其他疫苗的同時
接種每2-3 年, 代替逐年
在接種以後, 給Echinacea 、Propolis 或Dermisal 七天作為解毒療法

Vaccination is an extremely profitable business,
both to the manufacturers of vaccine and to the distributors.

The purpose of vaccination is to protect your dog from potentially fatal infections by viruses such as distemper, rabies, and others. However, as with any medical procedure, we must ask the simple and direct questions, "Is it safe? Is it effective? Do the benefits outweigh the risks?"

"Booster" vaccination, as it is practiced today, is not always effective, and frequently has adverse sideeffects, either short or long term. With the use of combination
(4 in 1, 6 in 1) vaccines that are repeated year after year, the frequency and severity of these sideeffects in our dogs has increased dramatically.
Not surprisingly, most of the problems involve the immune system. After all, the immune system is what vaccines are designed to stimulate. But they do so in a very unnatural way that can overwhelm and confuse the immune system. The body may overreact to normally harmless substances with allergies and other skin disorders, or even produce antibodies to itself (autoimmune disease). At the same time, the body may be sluggish in responding to those things that it should reject, such as common viruses, bacteria, fungus, and parasites. This can result in increased susceptibility to acute infections, chronic tapeworm problems, or in more degenerative cases, cancer.

Booster vaccinations are unnecessary. Studies are now showing that these vaccinations are effective for many years and most probably for life. Vaccinated animals do not need any boosters.

All Veterinary Schools in North America Changing Vaccination Protocols:

Recent editions of the Senior Dogs Project's newsletter have reported on the ever-broadening trend of eliminating vaccinations for adult dogs, except for rabies, where required by state law.
All 27 veterinary schools in North America are in the process of changing their protocols for vaccinating dogs and cats. Here are the new guidelines under consideration:

"Dogs immune system matures fully at 6 months. If a modified live virus (MLV) vaccine is given after 6 months of age, it produces immunity, which is good for the life of the pet (i.e., canine distemper, parvo, and feline distemper). If another MLV vaccine is given a year later, the antibodies from the first vaccine neutralize the antigens of the second vaccine and there is little or no effect. The titer is not 'boosted' nor are more memory cells induced.
Not only are annual boosters for parvo and distemper unnecessary, they subject the dog to potential risks of allergic reactions and immune-mediated hemolytic anemia. There is no scientific documentation to back up label claims for annual administration of MLV vaccines”.

If, for whatever reason, you decide that you must vaccinate your dog, I would make the following recommendations:

avoid multivalent (combination) vaccines
give parvo separately from distemper
never give the rabies vaccine at the same time as any other vaccine
vaccinate every 2-3 years, instead of yearly
after vaccination, give Echinacea, Propolis or Dermisal for seven days as a detoxification therapy

minibabyqq 2006-12-20 03:46

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[color=Magenta][size=5][b]抗藥性overuse 在狗[/b][/size][/color]

抗藥性overuse 在狗

狩醫為狗 作為預防物規定 抗生素, 雖然它很少是必要的。
抗藥性overuse 在病毒, 黴菌或其他nonbacterial 狗混亂 是驚心的! 研究表示, 至少50% 所有 抗藥性 處方為狗大概不是需要的。
許多獸醫依靠"研究" 和overuse 抗生素使狗 支持狗療法要求。為什麼? 簡單! 研究和促進對銷售藥物採取時間和成千上萬美元。當然, 主辦和支付研究的配藥產業感興趣讓這金錢回到。

有是自然抗生素嗎?
當然。年前狗所有者投入大蒜丁香在他們的狗創傷或使用了 蜂Propolis, 鼓勵 白細胞毀壞細菌的自然抗生素。

他們使用了Echinacea 作為自然 抗生素為狗。
今天我們知道, Neem 有有效, 自然抗藥性物產。
並且有許多其它草本, 是同樣有效但不危險的為您的狗作為強的藥物。

保持您的狗健康沒有抗生素!
告訴您的獸醫, 您意識到問題與抗生素有關。如果它被確定您的狗需要 抗生素 為療程, 設法避免寬廣的光譜抗生素。這殺害更多細菌比必需!
反而, 請求被指揮在具體細菌您的對療程的狗需要的抗生素。
不要執行抗生素為各無害的混亂, 避免 抗藥性overuse! 之外大槍治療為緊急狀態和您將有一次更好的機會的它是有效的。
鼓勵您的狩醫使用供選擇的醫學。使他們知道, 抗生素的 副作用 是危險的為您的狗。

使用 維生素補充、 草本補救, 或 homeopathy 代替抗生素。由於, 自然抗生素只攻擊壞細菌和留下重要友好的細菌單獨!

Antibiotic overuse on dogs

Vets prescribe an antibiotic for dogs as preventative, although it is rarely necessary.
The antibiotic overuse on viral, fungal or other nonbacterial dog disorders is alarming! Studies have shown that at least 50% of all antibiotic prescriptions for dogs are probably not needed.
Many veterinarians rely on "studies" and overuse the antibiotic for dogs to support claims of dog therapy. Why? Simple! Studies and promotion to sale the drugs take time and millions of dollars. Of course, the pharmaceutical industry that sponsors and pays for the studies is interested to get this money back.

Is there a natural antibiotic?
Sure. Years ago dog owners put garlic cloves in the wounds of their dogs or used Bee Propolis, a natural antibiotic that encourages white blood cells to destroy bacteria.

They used Echinacea as a natural antibiotic for dogs.
Today we know, Neem has effective, natural antibiotic properties as well.
And there are many other herbs, which are same effective but not dangerous for your dog as strong drugs.

Keep your dog healthy without antibiotics!
Tell your veterinarian that you are aware of the problems related to antibiotic. If it is determined that your dog needs an antibiotic for medication, try to avoid a broad spectrum antibiotic. This kills more bacteria than required!
Instead, request an antibiotic that is directed at the specific bacteria your dog needs for medication.
Do not administer an antibiotic for each harmless disorder, avoid antibiotic overuse! Save the big gun-treatment for emergencies and you will have a better chance of it being effective.
Encourage your vets to use alternative medicine. Make them aware that the side effects of antibiotic are dangerous for your dogs.

Use a vitamin supplement, herbal remedy, or homeopathy instead of antibiotic. Because, a natural antibiotic only attacks bad bacteria and leaves the important friendly bacteria alone!

minibabyqq 2006-12-20 03:47

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[color=Magenta][size=5][b]什麼是Homeopathy?[/b][/size][/color]

什麼是Homeopathy?


期限‘homeopathy’ 來自希臘‘homoios (相似) 並且‘pathos’ (遭受或憔悴) 。 Homeopathy 是療程被設計刺激身體的自己的恢復過程為了促進免疫系統。Homeopathy 根據發現, 一種物質在小藥量也許緩和症狀相似與那些它起因在大劑量。

因而, homeopathy 二個基石是, "喜歡由喜歡治療", 並且各個 homeopathic 補救 適當地被稀釋消滅或使它減到最小是毒性作用。Homeopathy 是自然醫學的被規定的形式在德國, 和由常規醫生和自然治療師實踐。實際上, 80% 正統醫生在德國為他們的患者規定這自然醫學。homeopathy 效力和安全 支持近100 次臨床試驗。
Homeopathy 可能治療混亂, 由導致症狀相似與那些混亂。雖然similars 法律已經被認可作為一項醫治用的原則在古老印度, 由希臘Hippocrates, 和由德國Paracelsus, -- 這是Samuel Hahnemann, 德國醫師, 在1790 測試這項原則和隨後建立它作為自然醫學系統的依據。

相反對"更多是更強的" 的我們的一般信仰(和在現代天被隔絕的藥物用法), Hahnemann 發現, 重覆的稀釋和"succussing 的" 過程使medicine’s 作用更強和更加持久。簡而言之, 更多稀釋自然物質, 更高有力。那是不錯; 它也許是纏擾不清的, 但更多稀釋 homeopathic 補救, 更高有力, 並且較少它頻繁地被測量。
因而我們再有正統社區認為是可笑的一個因素。我們有原始的物質, ‘stronger’ 是homeopathic 補救。

資訊關於 動物homeopathy

Homeopathy 不是完全之外, 和有副作用。動物Homeopathy


動物Homeopathy, 對寵物療程的草本補救

需求使用 homeopathy 為動物和寵物療程永久地是在增量, 因為homeopathy 不導致副作用當正確地執行。
Homeopathy 是有效的為人和動物。
什麼適用於人適用於您的動物也是。
使用 動物homeopathy 由狗所有者變得越□越共同。
根據症狀, homeopathy 可能被使用另外或選擇對常規
醫學為人和動物療程。
當狗所有者, 我們喜歡提供我們的dogss 最佳的療程可利用。我使用有一段時間了動物homeopathy 在我的狗和動物現在, 以優秀結果。德國實習者運用homeopathic 草本補救由於它是高成功率和舒適規定作為選擇對 抗生素 和 類固醇。簡單地選擇最好描述情況的草本補救。相當經常超過一醫學也許似乎適當。各個homeopathic 補救可能安全地被結合。

Dermisal
動物和寵物療程:
- 乾燥和含水eczema
- 癢的頭皮, 皮疹
- 對所有寵物的Homeopathic 補救以令人不快的體味

Febrisal
動物和 寵物療程:
- 基本的熱性的條件在所有寵物

Vomisal
動物和 寵物療程:
- 上部呼吸道的支氣管炎和混亂。

Dysenteral
動物和 寵物療程:
- 腹瀉混亂在狗和其它寵物。

Rumisal
動物和 寵物療程:
- 消化不良在狗和寵物

Traumisal
動物和 寵物療程:
- 所有類型傷害

在療程期間以 homeopathy, 它可能時常看來好像症狀在您的寵物得到更壞。這是完全地無害的, 不符號化情況的惡化。



What Is Homeopathy?


The term ‘homeopathy’ comes from the Greek ‘homoios (similar) and ‘pathos’ (suffering or sickness). Homeopathy is a medication designed to stimulate the body's own healing processes in order to boost the immune system. Homeopathy is based upon the discovery that a substance in small doses may alleviate symptoms similar to those it causes at higher doses.

Thus, the two cornerstones of homeopathy are that "likes are cured by likes", and each homeopathic remedy is properly diluted to eliminate or minimize it's toxic effects. Homeopathy is the most prescribed form of natural medicine in Germany, and is practiced by conventional doctors and natural therapists alike. In fact, 80% of orthodox doctors in Germany prescribe this natural medicine for their patients. The efficacy and safety of homeopathy is supported by close to 100 clinical trials.
Homeopathy can cure a disorder, by producing symptoms similar to those of the disorder. Although the law of similars had already been recognized as a healing principle in ancient India, by the Greek Hippocrates, and by the German Paracelsus,--it was Samuel Hahnemann, a German physician, who in 1790 tested this principle and subsequently established it as the basis of a system of natural medicine.

Contrary to our general belief that "more is stronger" (as in modern day isolated drug usage), Hahnemann discovered that the process of repeated dilution and "succussing" made the medicine’s effect stronger and more lasting. In short, the more dilute the natural substance, the higher the potency. That is right; it may be confusing, but the more dilute the homeopathic remedy, the higher the potency, and the less frequently it is given.
Thus we again have a factor that the orthodox community thinks is ridiculous. The less we have of the original substance, the ‘stronger’ is the homeopathic remedy.

Info about animal homeopathy

Homeopathy is totally save, and has no side effects.


Animal Homeopathy


Animal Homeopathy, herbal remedy for pet medication

The demand to use homeopathy for animal and pet medication is permanently on the increase, because homeopathy causes no side effects when administered correctly.
Homeopathy is effective for the human and animal.
What applies to the human applies to your animal too.
Using animal homeopathy by dog owners is becoming more and more common.
According to the symptoms, homeopathy can be used in addition or alternative to conventional
medicines for human and animal medication.
As dog owners, we like to provide our dogss the best medication available. I use animal homeopathy on my dogs and animals for some time now, with excellent results. German practitioners utilize homeopathic herbal remedy due to it's high success rate and ease of prescribing as an alternative to antibiotics and steroids. Simply choose the herbal remedy that best describes the situation. Quite often more than one medicine may seem appropriate. Each homeopathic remedy can be safely combined.

Dermisal
Animal and Pet medication:
- Dry and watery eczema
- Itchy scalp, skin rashes
- Homeopathic remedy for all pets with unpleasant body odor

Febrisal
Animal and Pet medication :
- basic febrile conditions in all pets

Vomisal
Animal and Pet medication:
- bronchitis and disorders of the upper respiratory tract.

Dysenteral
Animal and Pet medication:
-Diarrhea disorders in dogs and other pets.

Rumisal
Animal and Pet medication:
- indigestion in dogs and pets

Traumisal
Animal and Pet medication:
- all types of injury

During medication with homeopathy, it can at times appear as though the symptoms in your pet are getting worse. This is completely harmless and does not signify a deterioration of the condition.

minibabyqq 2006-12-20 03:48

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[color=Magenta][size=5][b]草本寵物療程[/b][/size][/color]

草本寵物療程



蘋果汁醋 是草本皮膚補救的自然國王。這是一個美妙的草本療程為發癢和抓狗並且一種雄偉皮膚和頭髮調節劑。蘋果汁醋或直接或被稀釋的50/50 用水可能直接地嚮受影響的區域被申請和讓烘乾。 它是還有用的為 demodectic mange。

黃色和綠色色的食物 是偉大的毒素救濟者如果增加來狗食。西瓜是最佳的自由基淨化劑的當中一個。

維生素E: 創傷癒合和傷痕組織: 維生素E 將加速癒合和使傷痕組織減到最小從形成。為 寵物療程 擠壓膠囊創傷、擦傷處, 燒傷和在眼皮為被激起的眼睛問題。它幾乎立刻不會燒和將安慰和將鎮痛。

草本醋 做對eczema 和 真菌的 優秀 補救, 因為醋是本質上殺真菌劑。醋與殺真菌劑的成份作為牛至和大蒜經常是欣然可利用的在雜貨店。 寵物療程 申請草本醋幾次每日與棉花或壓縮。

茶樹油 最頻繁地被推薦為表面 真菌感染的 草本寵物 療程。和用所有精油, full-strength 油應該被稀釋在載體。

Neem 油 被稀釋在水中或載體油是一個優秀草本 寵物療程 解除 皮膚混亂 如 scabies 和有昆蟲repellant 物產。

簡單的檸檬沖洗並且被推薦為 寵物療程。使用大約10 檸檬皮膚在1 公升水, 帶來給煮沸。煨直到糊狀, 張力和冷卻在傾吐結束寵物外套之前。

維生素C: 給1mg 2mg 每天三個月對小狗從大養殖可能幫助防止 hip dysplacia。給5mg 10mg 日報為 寵物療程 皮膚混亂。


自然治療為慍怒: 為狗衡量大約4 公斤、經常二個茶匙鈉ascorbate 粉末, 或三種或四一克緩釋片劑直接在喉頭下。或八cc 維生素C 通過射入在肌肉將是非常是需要的使 寵物療程 立刻停止症狀。如果捉住早期的寵物很少將需要被給第二藥量。
這運作相等地為parvo 病毒。


裁減
新鮮的 蘆薈維拉 是一個優秀 寵物療程 為裁減和刮。 蘆薈維拉 是一種自然防腐劑, 和將保持區域潮濕直到裁減可能癒合。重要事是 截去毛皮 和用任一繃帶不包括它, 或它無法適當地排泄。它必須癒合從裡面。如果它是極端深的, 您可能需要狩醫投入流失在它。其它計劃將使用 chamomile 在創傷防止傳染。

Flatulence
香芹籽油混合了入 狗食 一次每天是有用的。其它方法將給蘋果切片或蘋果汁醋在狗食。避免當時哺養 狗未加工的 骨頭。

肝炎
牛奶薊和薑黃是更喜歡的寵物療程為這混亂, 和多數肝臟疾病在寵物。

喜愛和愛
這些是或許最根本的元素在醫治用的類別。我們的寵物能興旺只在愛和關心的環境裡。沒有愛, 所有生物凋枯和死。對我們的寵物的愛運作兩個方式。當我們顯示我們的寵物喜愛以柔和的詞、愛撫的手和簡單地我們的採納他們的形式, 他們反應在種類和開花裡。這個關係對福利措施並且貢獻為我們。關心對我們的寵物是自已被任命角色並且作為他們的老闆, 我們有責任使他們的生活一樣健康和愉快儘可能。
Herbal Pet Medication



Apple Cider Vinegar is the natural king of herbal skin remedies. It is a wonderful herbal medication for itching and scratching dogs as well as a superb skin and hair conditioner. Apple cider vinegar either straight or diluted 50/50 with water can be applied directly to the affected area and allowed to dry. It is also helpful for demodectic mange.

Yellow and green colored foods are great toxin relievers if added to the dogs food. Watermelon is one of the best free radical scavengers.

Vitamin E: Wound healing and scar tissue: Vitamin E will speed healing and minimize scar tissue from forming. For pet medication squeeze capsules onto wounds, abrasions, burns and on eyelids for inflamed eye problems. It will not burn and will soothe and ease pain almost immediately.

Herbal vinegars make excellent remedies for eczema and fungus, as vinegar is in itself antifungal. Vinegars with antifungal ingredients as oregano and garlic are often readily available at grocery stores. For pet medication apply herbal vinegar a few times daily with cotton or compresses.

Tea tree oil is most frequently recommended for herbal pet medication of superficial fungal infections. As with all essential oils, the full-strength oil should be diluted in a carrier.

Neem oil diluted in water or a carrier oil is an excellent herbal pet medication to relieve skin disorders like scabies and has insect repellant properties.

A simple lemon rinse is also recommended for pet medication. Using about 10 lemon skins in 1 litre of water, bring to the boil. Simmer until mushy, strain and cool before pouring over pets coat.

Vitamin C: Giving 1mg to 2mg per day for three months to puppies from large breeds can help prevent hip dysplacia. Give 5mg to 10mg daily for pet medication skin disorders.


Natural Treatment for Distemper: For a dog weighting about 4 kilos, often two teaspoons of sodium ascorbate powder, OR three or four one gram slow-release tablets straight down the throat. OR eight cc of vitamin C by injection in the muscle will be all that is needed for pet medication to stop the symptoms immediately. If caught early pet will rarely need to be given a second dose.
This works equally as well for parvo virus.


Cuts
Fresh aloe vera is an excellent pet medication for cuts and scrapes. Aloe vera is a natural antiseptic, and will keep the area moist until the cut can heal. The important thing is to clip the fur away and don't cover it with any bandage, or it can't drain properly. It has to heal from the inside out. If it is extremely deep, you may need a vet to put a drain in it. Another course of action is to use chamomile in the wound to prevent infection.

Flatulence
Caraway oil mixed into the dogs food once per day is helpful. Another method is to give apple slices or apple cider vinegar on the dogs food. Avoid feeding the dog raw bones at the moment.

Hepatitis
Milk thistle and turmeric is the preferred pet medication for this disorder, and most liver ailments in pets.

Affection and Love
These are perhaps the most essential elements in the healing category. Our pets can thrive only in an environment of love and caring. Without love, all creatures wither and die. Love for our pets works both ways. When we show our pets affection in the form of gentle words, caressing hands and simply our acceptance of them, they respond in kind and blossom. This relationship contributes to a measure of well-being for us also. Caring for our pets is a self appointed role and as their keepers, we have a responsibility to make their lives as healthy and happy as possible.

minibabyqq 2006-12-20 03:49

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狗草本 The Herbal Remedy

[color=Magenta][size=5][b]草本補救[/b][/size][/color]


許多草本有醫藥價值, 可能被使用幫助您的狗安全地和有效地克服共同的疾病的範圍。預期, 各個草本補救在這張名單起一本指南對於更加巨大的生命力和長壽作用對於您的狗。

草本補救不應該被給在一個連續基礎上。
一個好規則為您的狗二個星期打開, 一個星期。

紫花苜蓿- 草本補救高在營養素裡, 有利對在酸適應, 為胃和消化疾病, 作為血液淨化器和作為胃口興奮劑。紫花苜蓿新芽包含幫助防止osteoporosis 、癌症, 和心臟病的phytoestrogens 。

BURDOCK - 有利為條件譬如關節炎, 皮膚混亂; 這個草本補救是一種強有力的血液清潔劑; 幫助促進發汗, 支持消化系統。

CHAMOMILE - 安慰的和鎮定的草本補救; 有效為消化弱點, 絞痛和急燥的腸條件。

CLIVERS - 非常安慰性的抗發炎草本為泌尿
系統, 一種淋巴興奮劑。沒推薦為糖尿病患者。

蒲公英 - 最響譽的肝臟補劑草本的當中一個可利用, 它是有利的作為腎臟補劑由於它柔和的利尿行動; 粗劣的消化干擾和粗劣的胃口。

惡魔抓 - 抗發炎草本補救以鎮痛藥物產對肌肉& 骨骼系統。幫助為關節炎和風濕病。亦稱一個有效的選擇' 小山' 測試發現了它是一個優秀止痛藥的地方。

小米草 - 一個優秀對眼睛浴的草本為眼睛, 補救, 和眼睛激怒; 它內部幫助解除黏液情況。

大蒜 - 一自然利尿, 變薄黏液在肺和支氣管管裡, 殺害毒菌, 自然抗生素並且殺真菌劑, 促進好消化, 幫助調控肝臟和膽囊。大蒜壓制酵母在身體。

山楂樹莓果 - 一個草本心臟和循環補救。

蛋白軟糖- 這個草本補救soothens 整個消化短文, 有利為胃怨言作為潰瘍, colitis, 膨脹和炎症, 有用為尿道。

MEADOWSWEET - 這是最佳的消化草本補救的當中一個可利用。包含抗發炎, 痛苦解除化合物, 能緩和噁心。組合很好用蛋白軟糖為消化混亂。它不應該被使用為felines 。

NETTLE - 草本補救有利對整體, 包括 皮膚混亂。

薄荷 - 這個草本補救是幫助解除flatulence, 刺激粗劣的胃口, 緩和噁心和嘔吐或絞痛的優秀消化補劑。

莓葉子 - 傳統草本補救被使用作為再生補劑加強和定調子子宮體。有用在腹瀉的治療由於它的收斂性物產。

紅色三葉草 - 強有力的草本補救和血液淨化器特別有利為皮膚混亂。它的expectorant 物產治療咳嗽和支氣管炎。這個美妙的草本證明了有用在去除腫瘤和囊腫。

ROSEHIPS - 維生素C 的當中一個最佳的自然來源 與其它礦物一起譬如銅和鈷。這是一臺免疫系統助推器, 和對所有的循環草本補救。

拔地響 - 這是一個最佳的nerviness 可利用。這是一個柔和有效的鎮靜草本補救; 幫助緊張的狗。

歐蓍草 - 外在地這個草本補救癒合創傷。有效在熱病, 幫助的治療對低血壓。

如果我們能 促進免疫系統, 我們能然後幫助身體自癒,
進一步不壓制它與類固醇和強的藥物。


The Herbal Remedy


Many herbs have medicinal value and can be used to help your dog to overcome a range of common ailments both safely and effectively. It is hoped that each herbal remedy in this list will serve as a guide to greater vitality and longevity for your dog.

No herbal remedy should be given on a continuous basis.
A good rule for your dog is two weeks on, one week off.

ALFALFA - Herbal remedy high in nutrients, beneficial for over-acid conditions, for stomach and digestive ailments, as a blood purifier and as an appetite stimulant. Alfalfa sprouts contain phytoestrogens that help prevent osteoporosis, cancer, and heart disease.

BURDOCK - Beneficial for conditions such as arthritis, skin disorders; this herbal remedy is a powerful blood cleanser; helps to promote perspiration, supports the digestive system.

CHAMOMILE - Soothing and calming herbal remedy; effective for digestive weaknesses, colic and irritable bowel conditions.

CLIVERS - Very soothing anti-inflammatory herb for the urinary
system, a lymphatic stimulant. Not recommended for diabetics.

DANDELION - One of the best-known liver tonic herbs available, it is beneficial as a kidney tonic due to its gentle diuretic action; poor digestive disturbances and poor appetite.

DEVILS CLAW - Anti-inflammatory herbal remedy with analgesic properties for the muscular & skeletal system. Helps for arthritis and rheumatism. Also known as an effective alternative to 'butte' where tests have found out it is an excellent pain reliever.

EYEBRIGHT - An excellent herb for the eyes, remedy for eye bath, and eye irritations; internally it helps to relieve mucous conditions.

GARLIC - A natural diuretic, thins mucus in lungs and bronchial tubes, kills germs, natural antibiotic and antifungal, promotes good digestion, helps to regulate liver and gallbladder. Garlic suppresses yeast in the body.

HAWTHORN BERRY - A herbal heart and circulatory remedy.

MARSHMALLOW- This herbal remedy soothens the entire digestive tract, beneficial for gastric complaints as ulcers, colitis, bloat and inflammation, helpful for the urinary tract.

MEADOWSWEET - This is one of the best digestive herbal remedies available. Contains anti-inflammatory, pain-relieving compounds and can ease nausea. Combines well with Marshmallow for digestive disorders. It should not be used for felines.

NETTLE - Herbal remedy beneficial for the whole body, including skin disorders.

PEPPERMINT -This herbal remedy is an excellent digestive tonic that helps to relieve flatulence, stimulates poor appetite, eases nausea and vomiting or colic.

RASPBERRY LEAF -Traditional herbal remedy used as a reproductive tonic to strengthen and tone the uterus. Helpful in the treatment of diarrhea due to its astringent properties.

RED CLOVER - Powerful herbal remedy and blood purifier especially beneficial for skin disorders. Its expectorant properties cure coughs and bronchitis. This wonderful herb has proven useful in removing tumors and cysts.

ROSEHIPS - One of the best natural sources of vitamin C along with other minerals such as copper and cobalt. It is a immune system booster, and circulatory herbal remedy for all.

VALERIAN - This is one of the best nerviness available. It is a gentle yet effective sedative herbal remedy; helps nervous dogs.

YARROW - Externally this herbal remedy heals wounds. Effective in the treatment of fevers, helps to lower blood pressure.

If we can boost the immune system, then we can help the body to heal itself,
not suppress it further with steroids and strong drugs.

minibabyqq 2006-12-20 03:50

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[color=Magenta][size=5][b]Ω3 和-6 脂肪酸 [/b][/size][/color]

Ω3 和-6 脂肪酸 Omega-3 and -6 Fatty Acids





許多年, 狗所有者給 Ω脂肪酸 他們的狗更換一件愚鈍, 乾燥外套到一更加光滑一個。獸醫最近發現Ω脂肪酸是重要為 狗皮膚混亂 作為過敏、 eczema, 和炎症。

什麼是Ω3 和6 脂肪酸?
Ω脂肪酸是具體類型多未飽和的油脂。
Ω脂肪酸二 大類 是Ω3 和Ω6 。您也許並且聽說Ω9 脂肪酸。Ω9 脂肪酸實際上減少Ω3 和Ω6 脂肪酸的集中在狗皮膚和血液。

由補充用Ω脂肪酸我們能減輕炎症。
Ω脂肪酸 影響一定數量的身體系統和情況, 如下所述:

乾燥狗皮膚: 狗外套, 是愚鈍, 易碎的, 和烘乾經常反應Ω脂肪酸。在seborrheic 皮炎 病例 有Ω脂肪酸缺乏在狗皮膚。

酵母傳染: 研究員發現Ω脂肪酸減速酵母傳染 成長 在狗。這是被認為的這些Ω脂肪酸戲劇每在酵母傳染的治療的有利 角色 在狗。

Eczema: 一些研究員發現 Ω脂肪酸 也許是有用防止 eczema 在狗。


Ω脂肪酸是必要的為身體的許多系統的正常作用。它是還顯然的, 沒有所有 Ω脂肪酸 是相等的。由於不同的Ω脂肪酸有不同的作用, Ω脂肪酸補充的選擇需要根據狗的具體情況。
對Ω脂肪酸的 來源和用途 下面被顯示。

名字    來源 寵物療程  
OMEGA-3 脂肪酸
阿爾法亞麻酸 丙氨酸  亞麻籽, 南瓜籽, 大豆油

--
Eicosapentaenoic EPA  海魚油 retinoid 療法, eczema, 自動免疫的疾病, seborrheic 皮炎, 減少膽固醇


Docosahexaenoic DHA  海魚油 retinoid 療法, eczema
OMEGA-6 脂肪酸
亞麻酸 LA  晚櫻草油, 向日葵油, 紅花油, 大豆油, 玉米油,


乾性皮膚, 皮疹, 愚鈍的頭髮外套, seborrheic 皮炎
Arachidonic AA    無- 可能使炎症更壞


伽瑪亞麻酸 GLA  晚櫻草油, 琉璃苣油, 黑醋栗菜籽油 eczema, 自動免疫的疾病, seborrheic 皮炎

另外的 生物素 將增加Ω3 和6 脂肪酸的有效率。

治療計劃
Ω脂肪酸 應該被使用9-12 個星期。

風險和副作用
罕見的複雜化, 是胰腺炎。這是可能導致痛苦, 腹瀉和嘔吐胰腺的炎症。
Ω脂肪酸 增加卡路里。狗食降下在卡路里, 並且少量款待, 將防止重量獲取。
由於Ω脂肪酸 補充 包含很多魚油, 一些狗開發' 可疑' 呼吸。

Omega-3 and -6 Fatty Acids



For many years, dog owners have given omega fatty acids to their dogs to change a dull, dry coat into a glossier one. More recently veterinarians have found that omega fatty acids are important for dogs skin disorders as allergy, eczema, and inflammation.

What are omega 3 and 6 fatty acids?
Omega Fatty acids are specific types of polyunsaturated fats.
The two main classes of omega fatty acids are omega-3 and omega-6. You may also have heard about omega-9 fatty acids. Omega-9 fatty acids actually decrease the concentrations of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in the dogs skin and blood.

By supplementing with omega fatty acids we can lessen inflammation.
Omega fatty acids affect a number of body systems and conditions, as described below:

Dry Dog Skin: Dog coats, which are dull, brittle, and dry often respond to omega fatty acids. In cases of seborrheic dermatitis there is a deficiency of omega fatty acids in the dog skin.

Yeast Infections: Researcher found that omega fatty acids slow down the growth of yeast infection in dogs. It is thought these omega fatty acids play a beneficial role in the treatment of yeast infection in dogs.

Eczema: Some researchers found that omega fatty acids may be useful to prevent eczema in dogs.


Omega fatty acids are necessary for the normal function of many systems of the body. It is also obvious that not all omega fatty acids are equal. Because the different omega fatty acids have different effects, the choice of an omega fatty acid supplement needs to be based on the specific condition of the dog.
The sources and uses of omega fatty acids are shown below.

Name    Source Pet medication  
OMEGA-3 Fatty Acids
Alpha-Linolenic ALA  flax seed, pumpkin seed, soybean oil

--
Eicosapentaenoic EPA  marine fish oil retinoid therapy, eczema, autoimmune disease, seborrheic dermatitis, to decrease cholesterol


Docosahexaenoic DHA  marine fish oil retinoid therapy, eczema
OMEGA-6 Fatty Acids
Linoleic LA  evening primrose oil, sunflower oil, safflower oil, soybean oil, corn oil,


dry skin, skin rashes, dull hair coat, seborrheic dermatitis
Arachidonic AA    none - can make inflammation worse


Gamma-Linolenic GLA  evening primrose oil, borage oil, black currant seed oil eczema, autoimmune disease, seborrheic dermatitis

Additional Biotin will increase the effectiveness of omega-3 and-6 fatty acids.

Treatment plan
Omega fatty acids should be used for 9-12 weeks.

Risks and side effects
A rare complication, is pancreatitis. This is an inflammation of the pancreas that can cause pain, diarrhea and vomiting.
Omega fatty acids do add calories. A dog food lower in calories, and fewer treats, will prevent weight gain.
Because omega fatty acid supplements contain large amounts of fish oils, some dogs develop a 'fishy' breath.

minibabyqq 2006-12-20 03:50

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[color=Magenta][size=5][b]抗生素- 暗藏的危險[/b][/size][/color]

抗生素- 暗藏的危險


抗生素逐字手段反對生活(反= 反對, 生物= 生活) 。

在一個健康身體, 有好和壞細菌在小腸短文。那裡應該是大約80% 好細菌和大約20% 壞細菌。我們是非常清楚關於 抗生素: 他們被使用殺害細菌。
當 抗生素 被使用, 好和壞細菌被毀壞在您的狗小腸短文! 一旦 抗生素 被停止, 壞細菌生長第一- 和快速地。

細菌可能變得有抵抗性對抗生素當他們暴露於 抗生素 只是開發了方式戰鬥和生存他們。抗性細菌可能被傳達給其他人並且他們太將變得不適以抗藥性抗性張力。抗生素增加特殊細菌的機會改變它基本。結果: 更多抗生素您使用這更加不健康變成您的狗。

某友好的細菌譬如 乳酸桿菌屬嗜酸性 保護身體免受 酵母傳染 和不友好的細菌。一些好人製造B 維生素, 其他人lactase, 寂靜其他他們抗生素的自己的形式 反對植物群。好細菌與腫瘤戰鬥, 運作降低高膽固醇, 和改進消化。
假絲酵母albicans 是身體的一個正常居民, 但當 抗生素 擊倒它的競爭者, 它傳播! 這導致傳染, 生產導致一個微弱的immun 系統 , 神經學,和endocrinologic 混亂的抗原和毒素。

酵母繁茂 導致食物過敏、自動免疫的混亂、 eczema、 皮疹, mange 等。
使事態更壞, 抗生素可能禁止數的可及性B 維生素、維生素A 、葉酸、 鋅, 和鎂。當抗生素導致 腹瀉, 這個問題變得嚴肅。

腹瀉, 急燥的腸綜合症狀, 皮膚混亂, 熱病, 舉起了白細胞計數, 微弱的 免疫系統, 嘔吐, 失水, 鉀缺乏, 過敏, 口臭, eczema, 酵母傳染, 營養缺乏和 便秘 是正義的一些許多副作用和問題與抗生素 連接。

怎麼幫助您的狗
Recolonize 您的狗小腸短文與友好的細菌由使用自然, 營養補充 和哺養 未加工的狗食。

一定, 自然產品、 草本補救, 或 homeopathy 工作很好也是。他們簡單, 有效並且他們運作沒有副作用。液體和雞湯將幫助促進您的狗 免疫系統 , 和可能之外他的生活。

Antibiotics - the hidden danger


Antibiotics literally means against life (anti = against, biotic = life).

In a healthy body, there is both good and bad bacteria in the intestinal tract. There should be about 80% good bacteria and about 20% bad bacteria. Let's be very clear about antibiotics: They are used to kill bacteria.
When antibiotics are used, both good and bad bacteria are destroyed in your dogs intestinal tract! Once the antibiotics are stopped, the bad bacteria grow back first - and faster.

Bacteria can become resistant to antibiotics when they have been exposed to the antibiotic but have developed ways to fight and survive them. Resistant bacteria can be transmitted to others and they too will become ill with antibiotic resistant strains. Antibiotics increase the chance of a particular bacterium to change its basic. The result: the more antibiotics you use-the more unhealthy becomes your dog.

Some friendly bacteria such as Lactobacillus acidophilus protect the body from yeast infection and unfriendly bacteria. Some of the good guys manufacture B vitamins, others lactase, still others their own form of antibiotics against flora. The good bacteria fight tumors, work to lower high cholesterol levels, and improve digestion.
Candida albicans is a normal inhabitant of the body, but when antibiotics knock out its competitors, it spreads! This leads to infections, producing antigens and toxins which cause a weak immun system, neurologic, and endocrinologic disorders.

The overgrowth of yeast leads to food allergies, autoimmune disorders, eczema, skin rashes, mange etc.
To make matters worse, antibiotics can inhibit the availability of several of the B vitamins, vitamin A, folic acid, zinc, and magnesium. When antibiotics cause diarrhea, this problem becomes serious.

Diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, skin disorders, fever, elevated white blood cell count, weak immune system, vomiting, dehydration, potassium deficiencies, allergies, bad breath, eczema, yeast infections, nutritional deficiencies and constipation are just some of the many side effects and problems linked to antibiotics.

How to help your dog
Recolonize your dogs intestinal tract with friendly bacteria by using natural, nutritional supplements and feeding raw dog foods.

Certainly, a natural product, herbal remedy, or homeopathy works very well too. They are simple, cost effective and they work with no side effects. Liquids and chicken soup will help boost your dogs immune system as well, and maybe even save his life.

minibabyqq 2006-12-20 03:51

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[color=Magenta][size=5][b]茶樹油為寵物療程[/b][/size][/color]

茶樹油為寵物療程  


防腐茶樹油
茶樹油(Melaleuca alternifolia) 是一種自然防腐劑為 寵物療程。油立刻擊穿外皮層數和與機油混合對待像昆蟲叮咬, 削減的如此情況, 燒, 挫傷, 或煮沸。

抗發炎 茶樹油
茶樹油(Melaleuca alternifolia) 有痛苦麻木的物產, 可能典型地被使用為扭傷、關節炎、痛風, 或耳朵傳染。使用產品包含茶樹油, 因為純淨的精油會是惱人的對敏感的區域!

殺真菌劑的 茶樹油
茶樹油(Melaleuca alternifolia) 是一優秀殺真菌劑的, 可能被使用為 酵母傳染的 寵物 療程, 和 癬。為癬嚮受影響的區域應用茶樹膠凝體, 或奶油, 或增加茶樹油幾下落來浴水。
與匾戰鬥在您的狗牙, 用牙膏掠過包含茶樹油。

寵愛療程

由於寵物和人一樣並且遭受許多混亂, 茶樹油(Melaleuca alternifolia) 可能被使用為 關節炎、 口臭、癬, 或耳朵傳染的寵物療程。
為外在應用, 與1 杯水混合1 茶匙茶樹油。
當使用茶樹油為寵物療程, 總稀釋它如同充分的力量可能導致激怒。

內部不要使用茶樹油! 茶樹油(Melaleuca alternifolia) 包含毒性循環terpenes 。, 申請因而它只在您的狗無法舔它的區域! 不要使用它在開放創傷。
所以我們只使用Neem 油對待皮膚問題。Neem 是完全無害, 和absolutely 無毒的。

Neem 油 為狗皮膚混亂
Neem 油


Neem 油

Neem 是有用途的長的病史作為一個草本補救的化合物。許多普遍的草藥是從它仍然獲得。所有neem 樹的 部份 有醫療參考。在印度, neem 有時稱"村莊藥房" 。100 種配藥有效成分被辨認了在neem 樹, 並且它有許多醫療參考為人和 寵物療程。

Neem - 草本補救
Neem 是對熱病、食道疾病、皮膚混亂、呼吸疾病、 小腸寄生生物、免疫系統混亂, 和酵母 傳染的 療程的一個草本補救在寵物。
它也許禁止病毒的發展和防止他們進入的和傳染的細胞。 Neem 看來是對許多皮膚混亂的一個適當的草本補救。
反激動 和 痛苦免除 活動 neem 使它潛在地有用為 寵物療程 反對 頭皮psoriasis、 eczema、 seborrheic 皮炎, 和 酵母傳染。 neem 葉子 被顯示有活動壓制導致癬在 狗 和寵物的真菌。

Neem 油 和 Neem 葉子 萃取物也許外在地被應用以 Neem 奶油 和 Neem 肥皂的形式。
外在和小腸寄生生物也許是敏感的對草本neem 補救的作用。 Neem 茶 用為寵物療程反對小腸寄生生物, 包括蠕蟲。Neem 油和 Neem 香波 是優秀治療為 scabies!
或許一個neem 的最有趣的成功是它的用途作為對瘧疾的一個草本補救。
Neem 是一被證明的抗發炎的減退氨基酸和炎症其它斡旋人在身體。對這個作用貢獻的一些 重要化學製品在neem 是azadirachtin 、nimbidin 、limonoids, 和兒茶精。被溫暖的 neem 油 並且被推薦至於外在使用減少痛苦和炎症在受影響的聯接。



Tea Tree Oil for Pet Medication  


Antiseptic Tea Tree Oil
Tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) is a natural antiseptic for pet medication. The oil immediately penetrates outer skin layers and mixes with body oils to treat such conditions as insect bites, cuts, burns, bruises, or boils.

Anti-inflammatory Tea Tree Oil
Tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) has pain-numbing properties and can be used topically for sprains, arthritis, gout, or ear infections. Use products containing tea tree oil, since the pure essential oil would be irritating to sensitive areas!

Anti-fungal Tea Tree Oil
Tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) is an excellent antifungal and can be employed for pet medication of yeast infections, and ringworm. For ringworm apply a tea tree gel, or cream to the affected area, or add a few drops of tea tree oil to the bath water.
To fight plaque at your dogs teeth, brush with toothpaste containing tea tree oil.

Pet Medication

Because pets also suffer many of the same disorders as humans, tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) can be used for pet medication of arthritis, bad breath, ringworm, or ear infections.
For external application, mix 1 teaspoon tea tree oil with 1 cup of water.
When using tea tree oil for pet medication, always dilute it as full strength can cause irritations.

Do not use tea tree oil internally! Tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) contains toxic cyclic terpenes. Thus, apply it only on areas where your dog cannot lick it off! Do not use it on open wounds.
Therefore we only use Neem oil to treat skin problems. Neem is totally harmless, and absolutely non-toxic.

Neem oil for dog skin disorders


Neem Oil


Neem Oil

Neem is a compound that has a long medical history of use as a herbal remedy. Many of the popular herbal medicines are still derive from it. All parts of the neem tree have medical references. In India, neem is sometimes called "the village pharmacy". Over 100 pharmaceutical active substances have been identified in the neem tree, and it has many medical references for human and pet medication.

Neem - the herbal remedy
Neem is a herbal remedy for the medication of fever, gastrointestinal disease, skin disorders, respiratory disease, intestinal parasites, immune system disorder, and yeast infections in pets.
It may inhibit the development of viruses and prevent them from entering and infecting cells. Neem appears to be an appropriate herbal remedy for numerous skin disorders.
The anti inflammatory and pain relieving activity of neem make it potentially useful for pet medication against scalp psoriasis, eczema, seborrheic dermatitis, and yeast infections. The neem leaf has been shown to have activity to suppresses the fungus that cause ringworm in dogs and pets.

Neem oil and Neem leaf extract may be applied externally in the form of Neem cream and Neem soap.
Both external and intestinal parasites may be sensitive to the effects of herbal neem remedy. Neem tea is used for pet medication against intestinal parasites, including worms. Neem oil and Neem shampoo are excellent treatments for scabies!
Perhaps one of the most interesting success of neem is its use as a herbal remedy for malaria.
Neem is a proven anti-inflammatory that decreases histamine and other mediators of inflammation in the body. Some of the important chemicals in neem that contribute to this effect are azadirachtin, nimbidin, limonoids, and catechin. Warmed neem oil is also recommended for external use to reduce pain and inflammation in affected joints.

minibabyqq 2006-12-20 03:52

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[color=Magenta][size=5][b]類固醇[/b][/size][/color]

類固醇- 了不起的偽裝者 (風濕甾酮, 強體松等)


醫生告訴您, 類固醇只導致副作用在許多歲月以後。但新研究表示, 永久損傷是直接和毀滅的。研究表示, 類固醇導致永久, 致衰弱的作用在一種唯一劑量以後。' 類固醇大概是最單薄的現代天療程, ' 前醫學教授說約翰磨房, 在加州大學、傳染病的舊金山和院長在舊金山綜合醫院。

您採取您的狗對狩醫以 皮膚混亂。您的狩醫給您的狗類固醇射入。皮膚混亂清理。以後, 您發現您的狗有腎臟疾病。有是清楚的連接在類固醇射入和您的狗的害病的腎臟之間嗎? 您不知道。但我們知道, 類固醇知道 損壞腎臟。我們並且知道, 從藥物製造商的自己的資料表, 類固醇可能造成 肝臟損傷、易碎的對免疫系統的骨頭、糖尿病、腎上腺不足、無能應付重音, 和損傷。

像 抗生素, 類固醇是一個藥物被濫用的組在正統獸醫醫學領域。一次, 他們是後備的為極端急診病例。今天, 他們被使用在最瑣細情況。為什麼? 他們給匹配“expectation” 一個立即治癒奇蹟的出現; 客戶的水平。因而, 許多狩醫轉向類固醇如同攻擊第一線為他們的抗發炎和anti-allergic 作用。

類固醇仿造腎上腺封墊的行動, 一般新陳代謝身體的最強有力的管理者。離是很遠的地方靈丹妙藥每治療全部在類固醇不能治療一個唯一情況。所有他們是壓制身體的能力表達一個正常反應。

類固醇是所有寬廣的- 光譜那是他們簡單地不指定您希望對待身體的區域, 但驅散通過每個細胞包括中央神經系統, 細胞在骨頭裡, 光滑的肌肉、血液、肝臟, 等。

他們被認為選擇藥物為哮喘, eczema, 關節炎, 背部毛病, 腸問題, 和為任何和所有炎症或過敏反應

多少位狩醫提供他們的客戶以類固醇的可能的危險的任何徵兆, 在執行藥物前? 多少位狩醫知道甚而, 甚而短訓班應用可能提出永久損傷?

由於有那麼許多, 許多自然方法應付類固醇會被規定的問題, 它是由每個我們決定知道, 最佳的經驗法則是:

-- 不要開始他們--
Steroids - The Great Pretender (cortisone, prednisone etc)


Doctors tell you that steroids only cause side effects after many years. But new research shows that permanent damage is immediate and devastating. Studies show that steroids cause permanent, debilitating effects after a single dosage. 'Steroids are probably the most sleazy of modern day medications,' says John Mills, former professor of medicine at the University of California, San Francisco and chief of infectious diseases at San Francisco General Hospital.

You take your dog to the vet with a skin disorder. Your vet gives your dog a steroid injection. The skin disorder clears up. Later, you discover your dog has kidney disease. Is there a clear connection between the steroid injection and your dog's diseased kidneys? You don't know. But we do know that steroids are known to damage kidneys. We also know, from the drug manufacturers' own data sheets, that steroids can cause liver damage, brittle bones, diabetes, adrenal insufficiency, inability to deal with stress, and damage to the immune system.

Like antibiotics, steroids are one of the most abused class of drugs in the orthodox veterinarian field of medicine. At one time, they were reserved for the extreme emergency cases. Today, they are being used on the most trivial of conditions. Why? They give the appearance of an instant miracle cure which matches the “expectation” level of the client. Thus, many vets turn to steroids as the first line of attack for their anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects.

Steroids mimic the action of the adrenal glands, the body's most powerful regulator of general metabolism. Far from being a wonder drug a cure all at steroids cannot cure one single condition. All they do is suppress the body's ability to express a normal response.

Steroids are all broad -spectrum- that is, they don't specify simply the area of the body you wish to treat, but scatter through every cell including the central nervous system, cells in bone, smooth muscle, blood, liver, etc.

They are considered the drug of choice for asthma, eczema, arthritis, back problems, bowel problems, and for any and all inflammations or allergic reactions

How many vets have provided their clients with any indication of the possible dangers of steroids, prior to administering the drug? How many vets are even aware that even short course application can present permanent damage?

Because there are so many, many natural methods of dealing with problems where steroids would be prescribed, it is up to each of us to be aware that the best rule of thumb is:

-- don't start them--

minibabyqq 2006-12-20 03:53

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[color=Magenta][size=5][b]氨基葡萄糖Sulphate[/b][/size][/color]

為什麼額外氨基葡萄糖sulphate 是需要的當事變錯誤
關節軟骨是第一組織的當中一個變老和有相對地再生的粗劣的力量由於粗劣的供血對區域, 在健康animal/human 。精美平衡在穿戴和更新之間可能容易地被弄翻- 張力、滑動或秋天、重覆的重的用途、粗劣的營養、甚而壞相應一致或(在馬) 蹄不平衡狀態通過壞或irregular 穿上鞋子可能開始將導致聯接的進步退化事件的週期。

聯接的自然反應對張力、傷害或磨損將成為激起, 不管- 最大的數額synovial 流體被生產(經常是質量差) 並且實際上貶低軟骨和synovial 流體的酵素可能被生產(Stashak - 可看見 如此或不是1995) 。 這導致被承受的, 如果不更加偉大的, 炎症... 自已使週期永存導致DJD 在任一個動物(和人) 因為身體無法生產足夠的氨基葡萄糖跟上對會是必要的修理和更新的率。這是特別真實的一個更舊的動物以減速身體系統來以年齡。

氨基葡萄糖sulphate 怎麼被使用?
氨基葡萄糖sulphate 和軟骨素sulphate 使用解除症狀和幫助在癒合退化聯接疾病(DJD) - 骨關節炎

這個關節炎的形式□去□常被重視作為永久, 逐漸惡化情況影響許多動物(和人) 如同他們變老- 變老的過程的一個不可避免的結果被結合與磨損在聯接。用許多方式這是真實的但許多動物所有者報告了很大地改善的流動性在他們的動物當被哺養的氨基葡萄糖& 軟骨素。人的患者採取氨基葡萄糖報告痛苦的解除並且在流動性的改善。


氨基葡萄糖& 軟骨素怎麼他們幫助?
提供另外的氨基葡萄糖加速損壞的或被佩帶的明確表達的軟骨修理和更新另外的軟骨素幫助中立化破壞性的酵素和改進synovial 流體的質量。

氨基葡萄糖和軟骨素- 二自然發生和根本物質的組合的補充- 證明是最有效的。

因為DJD, 一旦開始, 是一個永久情況, 治療是長期- 動物(或人) 必須停留在維護藥量為剩餘它的生活- 聯接將恢復回到它的退化情況如果補充停止。

許多獸醫定期地注射Polysulfated Glycosaminoglycan (軟骨素) 直接地入DJD 聯接或一個被管理和因此不可避免地將變得退化。但是, 它可能通過肌肉注射更加重要地並且給和, 為平均動物所有者, 口頭- 您能增加氨基葡萄糖和軟骨素來他們的食物! 好處後者是所有聯接被對待, 不僅一個被注射 (威廉E 瓊斯)。

新聞!
最近英國現場研究科學地證明一個特殊氨基葡萄糖補充的有效率...
Cortaflex... 在維護原始的大步長度和流動性。
Cortaflex 可能幫助維護健康聯接和好聯合流動性。

有是表示的其它研究, 當當地注射入受影響的聯接給最快的改善(幾乎直接!), 沒有在氨基葡萄糖和軟骨素的好處被獲取的結束口服上的重大區別在大約30 天以後。給補充由增加它日報來飼料比有射入, 或許, 合理的每個月或如此。

有至少現在生產特別狗食為更舊的動物包含軟骨素和氨基葡萄糖的一位主要狗食製造商並且有被設計增加來正常食物- 補充的幾個品牌在市場上這些是可利用的為人, 並且馬和似犬治療。

科學證據為氨基葡萄糖sulphate

氨基葡萄糖sulphate 和關節炎
證據那裡是, 氨基葡萄糖是一種有效的治療為關節炎從牛津臨床學校Infomation 管理服務單位大學

Conclusion/summary
"底線是, 有證據身體支持口頭和肌肉內氨基葡萄糖效力在關節炎。"


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PubMed 查尋在醫學全國圖書館顯露科學試驗hundereds... 這一種任意選擇...

氨基葡萄糖和軟骨素硫化在骨關節炎的治療: 一次勘測

de los Reyes GC, Koda RT, 先得權EJ 。

配藥科學的部門, 藥房, 南加州大學學校, 洛杉磯, 加州90089, 美國。

超過30 年, non-steroidal 抗發炎藥物(NSAIDs) 被使用了作為標準在骨關節炎(OA 的) 治療。嚴肅和經常威脅生命的不利影響由於這些代理是共同。臨床研究結果顯露, 氨基葡萄糖sulfate 和軟骨素sulfate 是有效和更加安全的選擇緩和OA 症狀。實驗性證據表明, 這些化合物和他們的低分子重量衍生物有一特殊tropism 為他們擔當基體在組分積木生物合成的軟骨。本文是化學、機制行動, pharmacokinetics 、臨床這兩nutraceuticals 效力和安全的文學回顧。

出版物類型:
回顧
回顧, 講解

PMID: 11127967 [ PubMed - 被標註為MEDLINE ]


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氨基葡萄糖的作用在interleukin 1 被適應的關節軟骨


Fenton 季, Chlebek 布朗鉀, Caron JP, Orth 兆瓦。

動物學, 密執安州大學, East Lansing 48824 的部門, 美國。

氨基葡萄糖禁止再組合人interleukin-1 被刺激的軟骨退化在馬軟骨explants 。最近, 再組合馬interleukin-1 被克隆了和被淨化了。所以, 這項研究宗旨將描繪氨基葡萄糖的作用在軟骨退化索引在再組合馬IL 1beta 被刺激的馬關節軟骨explants 。軟骨圓盤被收穫了從馬(年齡antebrachiocarpal 和中間腕骨聯接的關節表面的重量軸承區域2-8 年) 並且被開化了在標準條件下。Explants 暴露於再組合馬interleukin-1beta (reIL-1beta) 在幾天1-4 在出現或缺乏氨基葡萄糖(0.25, 2.5 或25 mg/ml), 以適當的控制。硝酸氧化物, 前列腺素E2, 硫化了proteoglycan, stromelysin 並且gelatinase/collagenase 活動被釋放入被適應的媒介和總組織proteoglycan 內容被測量了作為軟骨分解代謝顯示。氨基葡萄糖禁止了軟骨分解代謝的反應以統計地是重大的在0.25 mg/ml 為stromelysin 活動和2.5 mg/ml 藥量為collagenase/gelatinase 活動的藥量依賴方式。在25 mg/ml 氨基葡萄糖並且防止了在硝酸氧化物生產、前列腺素E2 和proteoglycan 發行的IL 1beta 導致的增量對媒介。氨基葡萄糖防止馬關節軟骨退化被reIL-1beta 實驗性地導致在試管內。這資料為對氨基葡萄糖的軟骨損失的用途在治療或預防提供進一步支持在運動馬。

PMID: 12405690 [ PubMed - 被標註為MEDLINE ]



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氨基葡萄糖sulfate 膝蓋骨關節炎進步用途和延遲: 3 年, 被隨機化的, 安慰劑受控, 雙盲研究

Pavelka K, Gatterova J, Olejarova M, Machacek S, Giacovelli G, Rovati LC 。

醫學和風濕病學, 查爾斯大學, 布拉格, 捷克的部門[email]pavelka@revma.cz[/email]

在三年期間... 200 名患者, 100 被給了一個補充包含其它100 被給placeboand 結果被監測的氨基葡萄糖。結論: 長期治療與氨基葡萄糖sulfate 減速了膝蓋骨關節炎進步, 可能確定疾病修改。


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氨基葡萄糖。一nutraceutical 在骨關節炎

Phoon S, Manolios N 。

Westmead 醫院, 新南威爾斯。

背景: 氨基葡萄糖是被銷售了作為自然產品為骨關節炎的治療的胺物糖。它通俗化了在藥房的補全部分作為一種安全不用處方的治療為osteoarthritic 痛苦。宗旨: 我們回顧文學在氨基葡萄糖效力和安全在骨關節炎。討論: 最近研究建議, 它也許不僅提供根據症狀的鎮痛, 但也許有在chondroprotection 的一個角色。

出版物類型:
回顧
回顧文學

PMID: 12154601 [ PubMed - 被標註為MEDLINE ]



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氨基葡萄糖療法與ibuprofen 比較為關節痛

Ruane R, Griffiths P 。

主要關心和公共藥房, College 倫敦國王的。

確定口頭氨基葡萄糖的有效率與ibuprofen 為關節痛安心在骨關節炎微型回顧(Griffiths 2002) 雙盲被隨機化的受控試驗比較二被承擔。人口是成人患者被診斷以骨關節炎在任一個站點。結果是關節炎痛苦減少。查尋在Medline 、Embase 、AMED 、Cochrane 圖書館和默克索引辨認了四次試驗。這些, 二項研究是可獲得的和包括在回顧。兩個1.2 g ibuprofen 日報與1.5 g 氨基葡萄糖sulphate 日報比較, 在三分開的藥量。參加者的聯合的數量在研究是218 。這些研究的結果顯示氨基葡萄糖是相似的效力對ibuprofen 。結論是, 氨基葡萄糖是有效的在解除關節痛與相關骨關節炎。氨基葡萄糖的痛苦解除的作用也許歸結於它軟骨重建的物產; 這些疾病修改作用不看與簡單的鎮痛藥和是特殊好處。氨基葡萄糖可能實踐上被使用作為一個選擇對抗發炎藥物和鎮痛藥或作為有用的附屬對標準鎮痛藥療法。

出版物類型:
回顧
回顧文學

PMID: 11904551 [ PubMed - 被標註為MEDLINE ]



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氨基葡萄糖sulfate 在膝蓋的骨關節炎

Noack W, Fischer M, Forster KK, Rovati LC, Setnikar I 。

整形術Evangelisches Waldkrankenhaus, 柏林, 德國的部門。

氨基葡萄糖sulfate 是藥物被使用為骨關節炎(OA 的) 治療, 根據它的藥物學和新陳代謝的活動在軟骨和chondrocytes, 由溫和的抗發炎物產和有利約物動力學的外形補全。這項研究的目標將定義氨基葡萄糖sulfate 活動和安全在病人症狀有OA, 使用multicenter, 隨機化, 安慰劑受控, 雙盲, 平行小組研究設計。研究包括252 個門診病人以膝蓋(Lequesne 的標準), 放射學階段之間I 和III, 和Lequesne 的至少4 種點和症狀嚴肅索引的OA 至少6 個月。患者治療與或安慰劑或口頭氨基葡萄糖sulfate 500 毫克t.i.d. 4 個星期, 與週刊, 以每週診所參觀。反應器對治療被定義了作為有至少3 點的減少病人對Lequesne 的索引以正面綜合評估由調查員。Lequesne 的索引是10.6 +/- 0.45 S.E.M. 點在兩個小組在研究的開始。這減少了對7.45 +/- 0.5 點在治療小組(平均3.2) 並且8.4 +/- 0.4 點在安慰劑小組(平均2.2) (P < 0.05, 學生的t 測試) 。反應器率在evaluable 患者是55% 與氨基葡萄糖(N = 120) 對38% 與安慰劑(N = 121) 。這些比例是52% 對37% 在意圖對對待分析(P = 0.014 和0.016, 各自地; Fisher 的確切的測試) 。療程很好被容忍了在研究過程中, 沒有區別在氨基葡萄糖和安慰劑被對待的小組之間。它結束, 氨基葡萄糖sulfate 也許是一種安全和有效的根據症狀的慢代理藥物為OA 。

出版物類型:
臨床試驗
Multicenter 研究
被隨機化的受控試驗

PMID: 11548224 [ PubMed - 被標註為MEDLINE ]



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氨基葡萄糖sulfate

Thorne 研究

氨基葡萄糖在制止或扭轉聯合退化的sulfate 的角色看上去直接地歸結於它的行動能力作為一個根本基體為, 和刺激生物合成, glycosaminoglycans 和hyaluronic 酸中堅需要為proteoglycans 的形成被發現在聯接結構矩陣。骨關節炎的成功的治療必須有效地控制痛苦, 應該減速或扭轉退化的進步。生物化學和藥物學資料與動物結合了並且人的研究顯示出, 氨基葡萄糖sulfate 是能滿足這兩個標準。

Why extra glucosamine sulphate is needed when things go wrong
Articular cartilage is one of the first tissues to age and has relatively poor powers of regeneration because of the poor blood supply to the area, even in a healthy animal/human. The delicate balance between wear and renewal can be easily upset - a strain, a slip or fall, repeated heavy use, poor nutrition, even bad conformation or (in the horse) hoof imbalance through bad or irregular shoeing can start a cycle of events that will lead to progressive degeneration of the joint.

The natural reaction of joints to a strain, injury or wear and tear is to become inflamed, whether visibly so or not - a greater amount of synovial fluid is produced (which is often of poorer quality) and enzymes can be produced which actually degrade the cartilage and synovial fluid (Stashak - 1995). This causes sustained, if not greater, inflammation... a self perpetuating cycle leading to DJD in any animal (and human) as the body cannot produce enough glucosamine to keep up to the rate of repair and renewal that would be necessary. This is especially true of an older animal with the slowing down of body systems that comes with age.

How is Glucosamine sulphate used?
Glucosamine sulphate and chondroitin sulphate are used to relieve the symptoms and help in the healing of Degenerative Joint Disease (DJD) - osteoarthritis

This form of arthritis used to be thought of as a permanent, gradually worsening condition affecting many animals (and people) as they get older - an inevitable result of the ageing process coupled with wear and tear on joints. In many ways this is true but many animal owners have reported greatly improved mobility in their animals when fed Glucosamine & Chondroitin. Human patients taking glucosamine report relief of pain as well as improvements in mobility.


Glucosamine & Chondroitin how do they help?
Providing additional Glucosamine speeds up the repair and renewal of damaged or worn articulating cartilage whilst additional Chondroitin helps to neutralise the destructive enzymes and improve the quality of the synovial fluid.

Supplementation of a combination of glucosamine and chondroitin - two naturally occurring and essential substances - has been shown to be most effective.

Since DJD, once started, is a permanent condition, the treatment is long term - the animal (or human) must stay on the maintenance dose for the rest of its life - the joint will revert back to its degenerative condition if supplementation stops.

Many veterinary surgeons routinely inject Polysulfated Glycosaminoglycan (chondroitin) directly into a DJD joint or one that has been operated on and therefore will inevitably become degenerative. However, it can also be given by intramuscular injection and, more importantly for the average animal owner, orally - you can add glucosamine and chondroitin to their food! The advantage of the latter being that all joints are treated, not just the one injected (William E Jones).

NEWS!
Recent UK field study scientifically proves the effectiveness of one particular glucosamine supplement...
Cortaflex... in maintaining original stride length and mobility.
Cortaflex can help maintain healthy joints and good joint mobility.

There have been other studies which have shown that, while injecting locally into an affected joint gives the quickest improvement (almost immediate!), there is no significant difference in the benefits gained over oral administration of glucosamine and chondroitin after about 30 days. Giving a supplement by adding it daily to feed is, perhaps, more reasonable than having an injection every month or so.

There is at least one major dog food manufacturer which now produces a special dog food for older animals which contains Chondroitin and Glucosamine and there are several brands of supplement on the market which are designed to be added to normal food - these are available for human, as well as equine and canine treatment.

Scientific evidence for glucosamine sulphate

Glucosamine sulphate and Arthritis
Evidence there is that glucosamine is an effective treatment for arthritis from the University of Oxford Clinical School Infomation Management Services Unit

Conclusion/summary
"The bottom line is that there is a body of evidence supporting the efficacy of oral and intramuscular glucosamine in arthritis."


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A search of PubMed at the National Library of Medicine reveals hundereds of scientific trials... here is a random selection...

Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfates in the treatment of osteoarthritis: a survey

de los Reyes GC, Koda RT, Lien EJ.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA.

For more than 30 years, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been used as standards in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). Serious and often life-threatening adverse effects due to these agents are common. Clinical findings have revealed that glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfate are effective and safer alternatives to alleviate symptoms of OA. Experimental evidence indicates that these compounds and their low molecular weight derivatives have a particular tropism for cartilage where they serve as substrates in the biosynthesis of component building blocks. This paper is a literature review of the chemistry, mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy and safety of these two nutraceuticals.

Publication Types:
Review
Review, Tutorial

PMID: 11127967 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


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Effect of glucosamine on interleukin-1-conditioned articular cartilage


Fenton JI, Chlebek-Brown KA, Caron JP, Orth MW.

Department of Animal Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing 48824, USA.

Glucosamine inhibits recombinant human interleukin-1 stimulated cartilage degradation in equine cartilage explants. Recently, recombinant equine interleukin-1 has been cloned and purified. Therefore, the objective of this study was to characterise the effects of glucosamine on indices of cartilage degradation in recombinant equine IL-1beta-stimulated equine articular cartilage explants. Cartilage discs were harvested from the weight-bearing region of the articular surface of the antebrachiocarpal and middle carpal joints of horses (age 2-8 years) and cultured under standard conditions. Explants were exposed to recombinant equine interleukin-1beta (reIL-1beta) on Days 1-4 in the presence or absence of glucosamine (0.25, 2.5 or 25 mg/ml), with appropriate controls. Nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, sulphated proteoglycan, stromelysin and gelatinase/collagenase activity released into conditioned media and total tissue proteoglycan content were measured as indicators of cartilage catabolism. Glucosamine inhibited cartilage catabolic responses in a dose dependent manner that was statistically significant at a dose of 0.25 mg/ml for stromelysin activity and 2.5 mg/ml for collagenase/gelatinase activity. At 25 mg/ml glucosamine also prevented IL-1beta-induced increases in nitric oxide production, prostaglandin E2 and proteoglycan release to media. Glucosamine prevents equine articular cartilage degradation experimentally induced by reIL-1beta in vitro. These data provide further support for the use of glucosamine in treatment or prevention of cartilage loss in athletic horses.

PMID: 12405690 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



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Glucosamine sulfate use and delay of progression of knee osteoarthritis: a 3-year, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study

Pavelka K, Gatterova J, Olejarova M, Machacek S, Giacovelli G, Rovati LC.

Department of Medicine and Rheumatology, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic. [email]pavelka@revma.cz[/email]

Over a three year period... 200 patients, 100 were given a supplement containing glucosamine the other 100 were given a placeboand the results monitored. Conclusion: Long-term treatment with glucosamine sulfate retarded the progression of knee osteoarthritis, possibly determining disease modification.


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Glucosamine. A nutraceutical in osteoarthritis

Phoon S, Manolios N.

Westmead Hospital, New South Wales.

BACKGROUND: Glucosamine is an amine-sugar that has been marketed as a natural product for the treatment of osteoarthritis. It has been popularized in the complementary section of pharmacies as a safe over-the-counter treatment for osteoarthritic pain. OBJECTIVE: We review the literature on the efficacy and safety of glucosamine in osteoarthritis. DISCUSSION: Recent research suggests that it may not only provide symptomatic pain relief, but may have a role in chondroprotection.

Publication Types:
Review
Review Literature

PMID: 12154601 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



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Glucosamine therapy compared to ibuprofen for joint pain

Ruane R, Griffiths P.

Primary Care and Community Pharmacy, King's College London.

To determine the effectiveness of oral glucosamine with ibuprofen for the relief of joint pain in osteoarthritis a mini-review (Griffiths, 2002) of double-blind randomized controlled trials comparing the two was undertaken. The population was adult patients diagnosed with osteoarthritis at any site. The outcome was arthritic pain reduction. Searches on Medline, Embase, AMED, the Cochrane Library and the Merck index identified four trials. Of these, two studies were obtainable and were included in the review. Both compared 1.2 g ibuprofen daily with 1.5 g glucosamine sulphate daily, in three divided doses. The combined number of participants in the studies was 218. The results of these studies showed glucosamine to be of similar efficacy to ibuprofen. The conclusion is that glucosamine is effective in relieving joint pain associated with osteoarthritis. Glucosamine's pain-relieving effects may be due to its cartilage-rebuilding properties; these disease-modifying effects are not seen with simple analgesics and are of particular benefit. In practice glucosamine can be used as an alternative to anti-inflammatory drugs and analgesics or as a useful adjunct to standard analgesic therapy.

Publication Types:
Review
Review Literature

PMID: 11904551 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

minibabyqq 2006-12-20 03:54

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[color=Magenta][size=5][b]水療法的好處 (狗)[/b][/size][/color]

似犬和馬水療法
用medical/veterinary 術語, 水療法被採取意味疾病的治療, 或, 水。以它最簡單的形式這能沐浴您的動物使用商業可利用的草本香波或使用由您的狩醫規定對待一個具體皮膚情況的一次更強, 加有藥物的洗滌。

但是水療法的最共同的形式, 和多數樂趣為動物
並且所有者, 是...

游泳!
這是修復療法的形式特別適當為狗和馬恢復從情況- 特別是那些的範圍介入問題與肢體。所有動物能游泳由天性。多少他們享用它取決於他們的信心在水中和這可能被逐漸風土化增加。

游泳幫助改進一般健身和stamina, 改進肌肉緊張和是有用的在恢復從傷害或操作。肌肉副產品開始惡化了的3 在天內的任一鉗製因此防止它是重要對改建的進一步弱點或傷害, 通過安全鍛煉, 所有肌肉。最好游泳狗在激昂的水中因為冷水導致血管的收縮在制約血流使肌肉較不高效率的皮膚附近和對表面肌肉(那些在皮膚之下) 。但是馬通常游泳在冷水裡因為它幫助消散他們引起在施加- 更多之下比狗和以一個較不高效率的冷卻系統的極大的相當數量熱。所以您是可能發現激昂的水池為狗和冷水水池為馬。

鍛煉沒有重音
游泳是鍛煉的一個優秀形式因為大多肌肉通常被使用在運動是包含的- 沒有重音由跑造成在堅硬地面。在土地, 各個s步聲創造旅行肢體和由骨頭、腱和聯接吸收的衝擊波。當這些重音是必要維護健康, 強的骨頭(參見部分在相片之下) 如果嚴厲, 或反覆, 這些衝擊波可能損壞或實際上減弱肢體, 一關節炎聯合或特別一個恢復從傷害或手術。游泳允許"制定出" 和加強肌肉當避免這潛在地殘損的震蕩。並且, 由於對運動的增加的抵抗, 肌肉比他們會做在土地必須艱苦運轉。

心血管鍛煉

在水之下, 胸口是受到來自水的重量的壓力緊壓在內。這意味著, 每呼吸要求更多努力- 肌肉被使用, 特別在呼吸, 必須艱苦運轉(嘗試呼吸當某人坐在您的胸口) 。當任一塊肌肉加強以鍛煉, 這改進整體呼吸系統。

心臟
心臟必須艱苦運作為了適應對營養素的增加的需要由工作的所有肌肉。

如果所有這聽起來堅苦工作- 它是- 是想法! 為狗, 5 分鐘游泳與大約5 英哩奔跑是等效的, 為馬, 游泳與大約幾小時教育是等效的10 分鐘! 但水的自然浮力和事實突然的轉彎, 停止並且秋天是不可能的牌子水療法鍛煉的一個安全和有效的形式為馬或狗。它並且是非常令人愉快的為多數動物... 神色在這兩個游泳在水池6 英尺深...

游泳可能被使用作為一個計劃的fittening 的節目一部分
許多賽馬教練員和馴狗師使用游泳療法作為他們的動物的fittening 的政權的一規則部份和有目的被修造的水池在他們的前提以便他們能通常游泳他們的動物。但是所有有效的訓練計劃必須包含動物可能面對在競爭中重音的元素。所以, 例如, showjumpers 必須實踐跳躍並且改進他們的一般健身根據心血管和呼吸系統。這是因為骨頭是活組織和適應- "改造" - 以回應鍛煉。它是必要告訴骨頭何處重音區域是以便它可能改造和加強為準備"事件" 。這就是為什麼水療法不應該被使用獨自- 游泳加強肌肉但做很少為骨頭。您的動物必須並且有正常鍛煉在土地為了保持他們的骨頭強。

得到獸醫忠告
多數狗和馬相當愉快地將應付游泳作為鍛煉療法的形式。但是在一個老或不合適的動物情況下, 或你恢復從傷害或手術您必須得到忠告從您的狩醫在採取它游泳之前。如果在根本的任一疑義- 要求您的狩醫!

Canine and Equine Hydrotherapy
In medical/veterinary terms, Hydrotherapy is taken to mean the treatment of disease by, or in, water. In its simplest form this could be bathing your animal using a commercially available herbal shampoo or using a stronger, medicated wash which has been prescribed by your vet to treat a specific skin condition.

However the commonest form of hydrotherapy, and most fun for animal
and owner alike, is...

Swimming!
This is a form of rehabilitation therapy particularly appropriate for dogs and horses recovering from a range of conditions - especially those involving problems with limbs. All animals can swim by instinct. How much they enjoy it depends on their confidence in the water and this can be increased by gradual acclimatisation.

Swimming helps to improve general fitness and stamina, improves muscle tone and is helpful in recovering from injury or operation. Muscle wastage begins within 3 days of any immobilisation so to prevent further weakness or injury it is important to rebuild, through safe exercise, any muscles that have deteriorated. It is better to swim dogs in heated water since cold water causes constriction of the blood vessels near the skin and to the superficial muscles (those just under the skin) which restricts the flow of blood making the muscles less efficient. However horses are usually swum in cold water because it helps to dissipate the enormous amounts of heat they generate under exertion - far more than dogs and with a less efficient cooling system. Therefore you are more likely to find heated pools for dogs and cold water pools for horses.

Exercise without stresses
Swimming is an excellent form of exercise because most of the muscles normally used in movement are involved - without the stresses caused by running on hard ground. On land, each footfall creates a shock wave which travels up the limb and is absorbed by bones, tendons and joints. While these stresses are necessary to maintain healthy, strong bone (see the section below the photographs) if severe, or repetitive, these shock waves can actually damage or weaken the limb, particularly an arthritic joint or one recovering from an injury or surgery. Swimming allows the "working out" and strengthening of the muscles while avoiding this potentially damaging concussion. Also, because of the increased resistance to movement, the muscles have to work harder than they would do on land.

Cardiovascular workout
Lungs
Under water, the chest is under pressure from the weight of the water squeezing inwards. This means that every breath requires more effort - the muscles used, particularly in breathing in, have to work harder (try breathing while someone sits on your chest). As any muscle strengthens with exercise, this improves the whole respiratory system.

Heart
The heart has to work harder in order to meet the increased demand for nutrients by all the muscles which are being worked.

If all this sounds like hard work - it is - that's the idea! For a dog, a 5 minute swim is equivalent to about a 5 mile run, whilst for a horse, 10 minutes swimming is equivalent to about an hours schooling! But the natural buoyancy of the water and the fact that sudden twists, stops and falls are impossible makes hydrotherapy a safe and effective form of exercise for a horse or dog. It's also very enjoyable for most animals... look at these two swimming in a pool 6 feet deep...

Swimming can be used as part of a planned fittening program
Many racehorse trainers and dog trainers use swimming therapy as a regular part of their animals' fittening regime and have purpose built pools on their premises so that they can swim their animals regularly. However all effective training programmes must contain the elements of stress that the animal is likely to face in competition. That is why, for example, showjumpers must practise jumping as well as improving their general fitness in terms of the cardiovascular and respiratory system. This is because bones are living tissue and adapt - "remodel" - in response to exercise. It is necessary to tell the bone where the areas of stress are going to be so that it can remodel and strengthen in preparation for "the event". This is why hydrotherapy should not be used on its own - swimming strengthens muscle but does little or nothing for bone. Your animal must also have normal exercise on land in order to keep their bones strong.

Get veterinary advice
Most dogs and horses will cope quite happily with swimming as a form of exercise therapy. However in the case of an old or unfit animal, or one recovering from an injury or surgery you must get advice from your vet before taking it swimming. If in any doubt at all - ASK YOUR VET!

minibabyqq 2006-12-20 03:54

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[color=Magenta][size=5][b]秀麗神話: BOTOX 殺害動物[/b][/size][/color]

在上旬10月, 在引起全國媒介注意多星期試驗的結尾, 洛杉磯陪審團堅定BOTOX® 沒有導致好萊塢socialite 的斷言的致殘的偏頭痛頭疼, 放氣她的名人皮膚病學家低估產品的潛在地有害的副作用為了收集大費注射藥物的婦女的論據。


這第一次是那Allergan, 製造Botox 的製藥公司, 被迫保衛它的藥物在陪審員面前, 並且爾灣, 加利福尼亞藥物巨人清楚地喜歡以定案。但既使公司官員慶祝勝利, Allergan 必須現在面對民意法院在是無可爭辯的事實: 動物遭受和死在有力測試Botox 。並且當Botox 有嚴肅的治療應用, 這些動物模子越來越為□什麼嚴肅比使光滑在皺痕之外排行。

2003 年幾乎2.3 百萬化妝Botox 規程執行了, 37% 增量從2002 年。2003 年, Allergan 捕網了$564 百萬從所有Botox 銷售, 40% 是從Botox 化妝用品; 那是大約$226 百萬在淨銷售量為Botox 化妝用品單獨。在2004 年並且銷售被射出增加17%-24% 。

是否為治療或化妝應用, 各批Botox 必須被測試在Allergan 之前發布它給醫生和皮膚病學家; 確定的Botox-the 關鍵成份正確的有力是botulinum 毒素, 最毒的物質對人類Allergan 已知使用一個高度可疑的測試以LD50 著名, 單一目的將發現藥量殺害50% 動物被使用在測試。

您讀, 正確: LD 50 測試的終點 是死亡到50% 動物被使用。測試的全名是致死的藥量百分之50 。

美國的人道社會相信這必須結束, 並且 我們想要您的協助。我們敦促純淨地使用Botox 為化妝目的避免產品的消費者直到Allergan 停止測試它在動物。期間。

我們並且要求所有動物戀人寫Allergan 說服公司, 動物不應該死以秀麗的名義。終於, 我們要求讀者與糧食與藥物管理局聯繫要求代辦處資金, 研究和批准選擇對LD50 測試, 以便測試可能永久地退休。

"HSUS 承認, Botox 有對人是有利的幾醫療用途, 並且那些用途應該繼續," 說馬丁・Stephens, 博士HSUS 的動物研究問題副總裁。"僅我們知道還, 近藥物的一半是為秀麗改進。消費者需要知道, 動物是遭受和忍受可怕的死亡為人的虛榮的單一滿意。這簡單地得到停止。"

Botox 的痲痺的作用

美國糧食與藥物管理局(糧食與藥物管理局) 2002 年給Allergan 綠燈銷售Botox 化妝用品使光滑在皺眉線之外在前額(glabellar 線在眼眉之間) 。Botox 是唯一的botulinum 毒素產品被批准用於化妝美國。(糧食與藥物管理局已經早先批准了藥物至於治療使用譬如對待橫渡的眼睛和子宮頸dystonia 。)

儘管Botox 化妝用品糧食與藥物管理局的被限制的認同, 皮膚病學家和醫生定期地執行藥物為"標記" 用途譬如對待"魚尾紋" 在眼睛附近和緩和偏頭痛頭疼。每當過去常常對待皺痕, Botox 化妝用品持續只三個到六個月, 意味用戶必須至少每年兩次重覆射入過程維護他們的無皺痕面孔。

Botox, 或Botulinum 毒素類型A, 來自廢物細菌 紡錘狀細菌屬botulinum, 導致臘腸毒菌病食物中毒的同樣毒性副產物。Botox 運作在阻攔神經信號旁邊在腦子和肌肉之間, 有效地痲痺導致皺痕和某些醫療混亂的肌肉。由於Botox 由細菌被生產, 它比其他人被創造以有力一些批的變化的水平藥物, 換句話說, 強的。

確定適當的力量為各個小瓶Botox, Allergan 必須測試產品。

LD50 測試: 一不及格

一點資訊公開地是可利用的關於類型有力測試, 如果有, 糧食與藥物管理局要求Allergan 舉辦在Botox 。資訊行動請求重覆的自由由HSUS 對糧食與藥物管理局產生了一點恰當資訊。但是, 假設LD50 測試是國際標準為估計botulinum 毒素產品有力, 毫無疑問糧食與藥物管理局舉行Allergan 對這個標準。

是否糧食與藥物管理局託管測試, 我們知道, Allergan 使用LD50 測試Botox 批。這個測試介入給老鼠產品的唯一射入入他們的胃腸洞和看見如果動物死在3-4 天之內。老鼠首先被分配到各種各樣的小組的當中一個; 各個小組將接受產品的另外力量為了估計殺害目標群的一半的力量。力量(LD50 價值) 然後被認為一個唯一"單位" Botox; 從那裡, Allergan 包裝單位的一個指定的數字入一個小瓶至於人的使用。

大約100 隻老鼠常規地被使用了每測試, 並且有徵兆各批botulinum 毒素產品被測試更多比一次。Allergan 聲稱了對HSUS 公司顯著減少了這個數字。

所有測試完成在動物, 常規或古典LD50 是一個最殘酷。在Botox 測試, 動物忍受肌肉痲痺的不同的水平和遭受被削弱的視覺和乾燥嘴。模子做如此從窒息的動物, 在他們的膜片成為痲痺之後, 並且他們能不再呼吸。那些立刻不死也許衰弱以不同程度痲痺在是之前euthanized 在結尾的三對4 天的測試。

動物幸福提倡者競選廢除LD50 為更多比二十年。經濟合作與開發組織, 導致測試的推薦的一個國際貿易組織, 2002 年被決定從國際上 被接受的測試指南它的指南刪除LD 50 。

更多是什麼, 科學研究表示, LD 50 測試可能是不可靠的。實際上, 看Botox 有力的LD 50 估計 準確性 的一項研究認為, 測試單獨"不是一個充分方法為估計botulinum 毒素... 有力。"

根據技術和人道問題聯繫了LD50, 歐洲當局辨認了, 一旦確認, 會是可接受的作為替補在估計botulinum 產品的潛在的供選擇的測試。

潛在的替換全部利用更加現代的技術和洞察入botulinum 毒素施加它的對身體的作用的機制。或許最有為的替換是endopeptidase 分析用試樣。現代研究表示, Botulinum 毒素類型A 施加它痲痺的作用由打亂一分子攫取25 重要在傳送的神經信號對肌肉。endopeptidase 分析用試樣評估毒素樣品的能力打亂這個分子, 使用分子生物學和免疫學最新的工具。分析用試樣的開發商建議它能替換老鼠分析用試樣在botulinum 毒素測試。

使光滑在皺痕之外

Allergan 有告訴HSUS, 它"致力重大時間和資源往一個供選擇的分析用試樣的發展" 於LD50, 但公司拒絕分享所有具體關於它的計劃。它並且拒絕重覆的提議運作以HSUS 開發那些選擇。我們, 然而, 獲悉, Allergan 最近與阿倫・M. 戈爾登伯格聯繫, 約翰斯・Hopkins 中心的主任選擇的對動物測試, 關於幫助公司的可能性開發一個人道選擇對LD50。

使Allergan 對它的聲明負有責任, HSUS 決定公之於眾以它的Botox 競選。我們要求, Allergan 開發一個仔細地計劃的, 很好被資助的項目帶來一個或更多最有為的替換可選擇方法給實現在三年之內。

同時, 我們要求, Allergan 追求和蒼勁地運用提煉和減少方法使動物用途和遭受在Botox 有力測試減到最小。公司應該公開地還透露細節它當前動物測試Botox 化妝用品以便消費者能決定是否使用產品。

終於, 就此, 糧食與藥物管理局應該運作與Allergan 在努力往一個更加人道和技術上更加優越的供選擇的測試, 和改變它的由於Botox 有力的政策相應地測試。

什麼您能做

給Allergan 寫 表達您的對LD 的關心50, 服從動物對痲痺和死亡以便人們能看起來更加年輕。請與大衛E.I. Pyott, Allergan 的首席執行官聯繫, 和告訴他, 您不認為老鼠應該死以單獨虛榮的名義。您能與他聯繫通過地址和電話號碼在或通過我們 易使用的電子郵件形式之下。

聯絡:
大衛E.I. Pyott
首席執行官
Allergan, 公司。
2525 Dupont Dr 。
爾灣, 加州92612-1599
714-246-4500

如果您當前使用Botox, 或考慮使用它, 考慮避免產品直到LD50 不再使用測試它的有力。

與糧食與藥物管理局聯繫和告訴代辦處資助, 研究並且採取選擇對LD 50 測試以便它可能永久地被逐步淘汰。

想像, 您是一個動物unfortunate 足夠被使用在估計新批有力Botox® 化妝用品。 一種普遍的反皺痕治療, Botox 化妝用品的 有效成分—Botulinum 毒素—是一個最毒知道的物質。

首先, 毒性物質 或充分的產品被注射入您的胃。然後, 作為它追獵通過您的血液, 毒素 導致噁心和然後帶來在的肌肉痲痺波浪傳播在您的身體過程中。 終於, 在中三對四天測試, 您窒息對死亡。  

歡迎到測試 最共同的 化妝 做法醜惡的世界在美國—測試使用一個方法以"LD50 著名" 留下 至少 50% 它的 動物服從—老鼠—死。  新發展在HSUS 的 競選對末端Botox 測試 在動物 有潛力改變那個世界神色, 和幫助保護老鼠 免受 這可怕死亡。

一道 皺痕在致命測試

美國的人道社會工作結束 無人道的實踐 LD50 測試 Botox 化妝用品(和相似的Botulinum 基於毒素的產品) 從2004 年10月。  Botox Allergan, 被合併和—調控這個—產品的代辦處兩位製造者—美國糧食與藥物管理局(糧食與藥物管理局)—忽略了HSUS 叫投入中止對這測試在動物。

但 於2006 年1月, HSUS 做了突破。 2005 年, HSUS 遞交了提案給美國部門間統籌委員會在供選擇的方法的檢驗 (ICCVAM), 敦促代辦處追求供選擇的方法為測試這些產品。 代辦處 負責對開發和確認新測試方法。

於1月, ICCVAM 反應了由根本上採取HSUS 的提案。

在一臺 聯邦記數器裡 通知發布了1月27 日, ICCVAM 宣佈, 首先在調查潛在的選擇對LD50 測試Botox 類型產品, 代辦處將協調關於主題的一個專家的車間作為重要性。 然後ICCVAM 請求了反饋從感興趣的人對此計劃, 要求: 一個專家的車間是適當的第一步在過程中和, 如果那樣, 應該這次行動是重要性嗎?  

HSUS 利用了機會 鼓勵所有關心的人民反應ICCVAM, 和敦促他們前進與車間作為重要性, 和作為最高效率的方式辨認最有為的供選擇的方法。近三千有關人反應了這個電話, 和給ICCVAM 寫了支持車間在2006 年前3月13 日最後期限。您能觀看這些信件和關於ICCVAM 網站的 其它評論。

Allergan: 選擇的鑰匙?

這個公告打開門使Allergan 充當在新動議的一個大角色。Allergan 是在一個獨特的位置提供ICCVAM 請求在LD 50 測試和所有潛在的選擇 表現與Botox 類型產品測試有關的技術資訊。

作為Botox 化妝用品的唯一的生產商和所有Botulinum 毒素"類型A" 產品的主導的生產商, Allergan 得以進入對幾年的 會是無價的對對現狀的ICCVAM's 評估的LD 50 測驗資料。

而且, 以回應HSUS 競選, Allergan 宣佈了(沒有提供細節) 公司花成千上萬美元在選擇上對LD50。如果真實, 公司應該有剛好關於ICCVAM 尋找的潛在的供選擇的方法的資料。

HSUS 敦促Allergan 與ICCVAM 合作由分享它的關於它追求LD50 測試和選擇的表現的資料, 公司要求。 "ICCVAM's 宣佈了計劃為Allergan 提供優秀機會公開貢獻往顯現出並且確認的供選擇的方法為估計Botox 類型產品有力," 說Marin Stephens, 博士HSUS 的動物研究問題副總裁。

為他們的部份, ICCVAM 官員 與Allergan 聯繫在車間前作為他們的回顧過程一部分。

秀麗的價格

雖然Botox 有幾治療用途, 它的最共同的用途即是—化妝, 作為皺痕還原劑。2005 年Allergan 捕網$830 百萬美元從Botox 它的銷售。那數額, 百分之43%, 或$357 百萬, 是從化妝用途。這百分比 平穩地未增加自2002 年以來, 當糧食與藥物管理局批准Botox 對待皺眉線, 並且顯示停止的標誌。 Botox 化妝用品的作用持續只大約3 個月, 至於更多人民開始使用這個虛榮產品, 更是還可能尋求另外的治療維護他們的無皺痕神色。

"HSUS 承認, Botox 有對人是有利的幾醫療用途, 並且那些用途應該繼續," Stephens, "但近一半說藥物用途的, 並且動物痛苦, 是為秀麗改進。一個ICCVAM 車間使用Allergan 的資料有導致的一次好機會  對選擇的用途為估計所有Botox 類型產品, 不管應用。"

LD50 測試Botox 類型產品代表是精華安全測試數十年對做法的殘餘用途。 在這個測試, 很大數量的動物暴露於一種物質, 通常通過牽強哺養, 為了統計地估計殺害50% 動物的藥量; 因此名字LD50 或"致死的藥量50% 。" 更低估計的LD50 價值是, 更高毒力或, 在Botox 類型產品情況下, 更高有力。

最近幾十年來, LD50 測試廣泛被批評了在科學和人道地面, 並且因而, 它的用途是在decline 。 2002 年, 例如, 經濟合作與開發組織(問題國際上接受測試的指南為工業化學製品) 的貿易組織從它的指南刪除了 LD 50 測試。  

對LD 50 測試的 用途在2003 年估計Botox 化妝用品有力公開地被暴露了。 以下年HSUS 展開它的競選結束對測試的這種應用的用途。 最近ICCVAM 公告清楚地是在這次競選的受歡迎的突破, 並且HSUS 相信車間的確是明智的第一步在努力辨認和提煉選擇對致命的LD50 測試。

老鼠, 誠然, 不是 最普遍的動物。 而是作為英國的哲學家 傑里米・Bentham 一次著名說關於動物的治療, "... 問題, 可以他們不是辯解嗎? 亦不, 他們可以談話嗎? 但, 能他們遭受?" 在這種情況下, 沒有疑義, 老鼠 的確遭受。

什麼您能做

數以萬計您反應了我們的號召和給ICCVAM 和Allergan 寫了, 告訴他們車間是在有條有理並且Allergan 應該幫助由分享它的測驗資料。謝謝採取行動。您的熱心反應  產生了變化。

In early October, at the end of a multi-week trial that drew national media attention, a Los Angeles jury determined that BOTOX® did not cause a Hollywood socialite's alleged crippling migraine headaches, deflating the woman's argument that her celebrity dermatologist downplayed the product's potentially harmful side effects in order to collect large fees to inject the drug.
It was the first time that Allergan, the pharmaceutical company that manufactures Botox, had been forced to defend its drug before a jury, and the Irvine, California drug giant was clearly pleased with the verdict. But even as company officials celebrate the victory, Allergan must now face the court of public opinion over a fact that is indisputable: Animals suffer and die in the potency testing of Botox. And while Botox has serious therapeutic applications, these animals die increasingly for nothing more serious than to smooth out wrinkle lines.

Nearly 2.3 million cosmetic Botox procedures were performed in 2003, a 37% increase from 2002. In 2003, Allergan netted $564 million from all Botox sales, 40% of which were from Botox Cosmetic; that's approximately $226 million in net sales for Botox Cosmetic alone. And the sales are projected to increase by 17%-24% in 2004.

Yet whether for therapeutic or cosmetic application, each batch of Botox must be tested before Allergan releases it to doctors and dermatologists; to determine the right potency of Botox-the key ingredient of which is botulinum toxin, the most poisonous substance known to mankind-Allergan uses a highly questionable test known as LD50, whose sole purpose is to find the dose that kills 50% of the animals used in the test.

You read that right: The end point of the LD50 test is death to 50% of the animals used. The test's full name is Lethal Dose 50 Percent.

The Humane Society of the United States believes this must end, and we want your assistance. We're urging consumers who use Botox purely for cosmetic purposes to avoid the product until Allergan stops testing it on animals. Period.

We're also asking all animal lovers to write Allergan to convince the company that animals should not die in the name of beauty. Finally, we're asking readers to contact the Food and Drug Administration to demand that the agency fund, research and approve alternatives to LD50 tests, so that the test can be retired permanently.

"The HSUS acknowledges that Botox has several medical uses that are beneficial to humans, and those uses should continue," said Dr. Martin Stephens, vice president for The HSUS's Animal Research Issues. "But we are also aware that nearly half of the drug is for beauty enhancement. Consumers need to know that animals are suffering and enduring horrible deaths for the sole satisfaction of human vanity. This has simply got to stop."

The Paralyzing Effect of Botox

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) gave Allergan the green light in 2002 to market Botox Cosmetic to smooth out frown lines on the forehead (the glabellar lines between the eyebrows). Botox is the only botulinum toxin product approved for cosmetic use in the United States. (The FDA had already previously approved the drug for therapeutic uses such as treating crossed eyes and cervical dystonia.)

Despite the FDA's limited approval of Botox Cosmetic, dermatologists and doctors routinely administer the drug for "off-label" uses such as treating "crow's feet" around the eyes and alleviating migraine headaches. Whenever used to treat wrinkles, Botox Cosmetic lasts only three to six months, which means that users must repeat the injection process at least twice a year to maintain their wrinkle-free face.

Botox, or Botulinum Toxin Type A, comes from the waste of the bacteria Clostridium botulinum, the same toxic byproduct that causes botulism food poisoning. Botox works by blocking nerve signals between the brain and muscles, effectively paralyzing the muscles that cause wrinkles and certain medical disorders. Because Botox is produced from bacteria, it is created with varying levels of potency-some batches of the drug, in other words, are stronger than others.

To determine the proper strength for each vial of Botox, Allergan must test the product.

The LD50 Test: A Failing Grade

Little information is available publicly about the types of potency testing, if any, that the FDA requires Allergan to conduct on Botox. Repeated Freedom of Information Act requests by The HSUS to the FDA yielded little pertinent information. However, given that the LD50 test is the international standard for assessing potency of botulinum toxin products, there is little doubt that the FDA holds Allergan to this standard.

Whether or not the FDA mandates the test, we do know that Allergan uses LD50 to test Botox batches. This test involves giving mice a single injection of the product into their abdominal cavity and seeing if animals die within 3-4 days. The mice are first assigned to one of various groups; each group will receive a different strength of the product in order to estimate the strength that kills half of the targeted group. That strength (the LD50 value) is then considered a single "unit" of Botox; from there, Allergan packages a given number of units into a vial for human use.

Approximately 100 mice have conventionally been used per test, and there are indications that each batch of botulinum toxin product is tested more than once. Allergan has claimed to The HSUS that the company has significantly reduced this number.

Of all the tests done on animals, the conventional or classical LD50 is one of the most brutal. In Botox testing, animals endure differing levels of muscular paralysis and suffer from impaired vision and dry mouth. Animals who die do so from suffocation, after their diaphragms become paralyzed, and they can no longer breathe. Those who don't die immediately may languish with varying degrees of paralysis before being euthanized at the end of the three- to four-day test.

Animal welfare advocates have been campaigning to abolish the LD50 for more than two decades. The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, an international trade organization that produces testing recommendations, decided to delete the LD50 from its manual of internationally accepted test guidelines in 2002.

What's more, scientific studies show that LD 50 tests can be unreliable. In fact, one study that looked at the accuracy of LD 50 estimations of Botox potency concluded that the test alone "is not an adequate method for assessing the ... potency of botulinum toxin."

In light of the technical and humane problems associated with LD50, European authorities have identified potential alternative tests that, once validated, would be acceptable as substitutes in assessing botulinum products.

Potential replacements all take advantage of more modern technology and insights into the mechanism by which botulinum toxin exerts its effects on the body. Perhaps the most promising replacement is the endopeptidase assay. Modern research has shown that Botulinum Toxin Type A exerts its paralyzing effect by disrupting a molecule-SNAP-25-critical in transmitting nerve signals to muscles. The endopeptidase assay evaluates the ability of toxin samples to disrupt this molecule, using the latest tools of molecular biology and immunology. The assay's developers suggest that it could replace the mouse assay in botulinum toxin testing.

Smoothing Out the Wrinkles

Allergan has told The HSUS that it is "devoting significant time and resources toward the development of an alternative assay" to the LD50, but the company has refused to share any specifics about its plan. It has also refused repeated offers to work with The HSUS to develop those alternatives. We did, however, learn that Allergan recently contacted Alan M. Goldberg, director of the Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing, about the possibility of helping the company develop a humane alternative to LD50.

To hold Allergan accountable for its statements, The HSUS decided to go public with its Botox campaign. We are demanding that Allergan develop a carefully planned, well-funded project to bring one or more of the most promising replacement alternative approaches to fruition within three years.

In the meantime, we are demanding that Allergan vigorously pursue and apply refinement and reduction approaches to minimize animal use and suffering in Botox potency testing. The company also should publicly disclose the details of its current animal testing of Botox Cosmetic so that consumers can decide whether or not to use the product.

Finally, for its part, the FDA should work with Allergan in efforts towards a more humane and technically superior alternative test, and to change its policy on Botox potency testing accordingly.

What You Can Do

Write to Allergan to express your concerns about the LD50, which subjects animals to paralysis and death so that people can look younger. Please contact David E.I. Pyott, chief executive officer of Allergan, and let him know that you don't think mice should die in the name of individual vanity. You can contact him via the address and phone number below or via our easy-to-use e-mail form.

Contact:
David E.I. Pyott
Chief Executive Officer
Allergan, Inc.
2525 Dupont Dr.
Irvine, CA 92612-1599
714-246-4500

If you're currently using Botox, or thinking about using it, consider avoiding the product until LD50 is no longer used to test its potency.

Contact the Food and Drug Administration and tell the agency to fund, research and adopt alternatives to LD 50 test so that it can be phased out permanently.

minibabyqq 2006-12-20 03:55

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[color=Magenta][size=5][b]關於接種資訊和關心[/b][/size][/color]

對獸醫接種的一種全部方法
由Clare Middle BVMS, 垂度Hom, 垂度Ac 博士。

巨大的變動應該是進行中與協議狩醫使用關於寵物的接種根據證據建議, 唯一接種為嚴肅的地方性疾病應該被執行和然後只或者一次在一生或在多數每三到五年(5)(8) 。

|出口|
刺激為減少接種是, 各種各樣的報告顯示嚴肅的免疫系統鎮壓在寵物和人的重大數字起因於定期每年或規則接種 (1) (9) (10)。

這應該是主流常規獸醫學一個美妙的故事合併與全部健康原則對有希望地將樹立一個榜樣為人的醫療工作我們的伴侶動物的極大未來好處。

常規醫學故事直到現在
當我畢業了作為狩醫20 年前, 我看見了慍怒和病毒肝炎幾條狗模子, 和似貓的腸炎貓模子。我看了parvoviral 傳染狗模子的巨大的數字。在每日必須對待幾室充分小狗死於難處理的嘔吐的和通過的血液為糞之後, 沒有我曾經會建議不接種的健康小狗為parvovirus 的方式, 運作得很好和有最小的副作用的接種。

現在, 二十年後, 那裡缺乏地是任一慍怒或肝炎在狗和很少似貓的腸炎在貓在澳洲。多數首都能被宣稱免於慍怒和感染病毒肝炎在狗, 以非常偶爾的小爆發在國家鎮(Dr P. Little, CSL) 。

有時常但很少parvovirus 小爆發在幼小小狗在一些城市郊區如果曾經在成熟狗, 並且那些小狗的生存率影響高級比它□去□常。

"沒有驚奇" 言流行病學家和史學家。歷史上, 傳染病路線跟隨了經典"響鈴" 被塑造的圖表, 以對案件的慢慢地逐漸變細的減少在頁的右邊。有趣的是, 這張圖表通常是相似的形狀不管疫苗被使用了或不是在特殊流行性期間。

我認為以狗接種, 他們傾向於轉移疾病從接種, 對小狗很好關心對低社會經濟的小組主要未注射過的口袋在社區。但是, 有充足的證據表示, 在人的疾病許多流行性, 接種未幫助減少疾病的發生並且重覆的接種惡化了它(是, 配齊)(10)。

如此, 現在, 我們傾向於認為我們的寵物有一個高水平健康因為有感染流行病的一個低水平, 但他們是沒有與我們不同由於他們現今有過敏的一種高速率, 癌症和慢性而不是深刻疾病。

有好證據即然所有接種和藥物和商業被處理的食物用漸增地降低我們的寵物免疫系統 (1)。

至少二次勘測, 一個在美國 (9) 和一個在英國 (1), 表示, 有非常統計地重大上升在動物中被提出對狩醫為各種各樣的憔悴在星期之內跟隨他們的每年接種, 推斷接種降低了他們的能力承受疾病。

出版獸醫研究顯示了自動免疫的溶血貧血症的 率在狗 與接種和同樣lymphosarcoma 腫瘤成長 顯著連接在接種站點在貓。 (2) & (3)

一些動物有嚴厲 過敏反應 在接種以後並且一些也許之後是沉寂或有熱病2 或3 天。這些標誌應該由狩醫嚴重採取和被注意關於病歷和向藥物公司報告因為這些反應將傾向於是嚴厲的在下接種以後。它並且會是有用他們向似犬健康關心報告進行勘測(1) 和對有害藥物反應當局。

那裡有是狩醫一個盲點不邏輯上關聯症狀發生在接種和其它藥物以後, 並且這是討厭對公眾和不是好PR 為獸醫行業。

全部健康故事直到現在
數十年, homoeopaths 被教了"vaccinosis 的"概念哪些是期限意思 疾病由接種造成。 我是使用homoeopathy 對待動物以長期或困難的條件12 年, 和一再導致了改善在他們的條件使用對vaccinoses 的補救。

換句話說, 慢性疾病一定, 一部分, 由接種造成。

許多自然治療師知道, 重覆的接種可能是慢性過敏和其它疾病的起因的一部分, 並且這由對人和動物的研究現在支持了 (1) (9) (10)。

我吃許多年被提供寵物所有者使用常規接種選擇為唯一極大威脅生活的疾病, 並且/或者homoeopathic nosodes 與仔細地平衡的自然飲食(沒有被裝罐的或乾被處理的寵物食品) 被結合改進自然免疫。

我是非常不願意再常規地接種狗遭受一被懷疑的vaccinosis, 但這總是所有者的選擇。

對獸醫接種協議的全世界變動

近年來, 表示的研究被執行了, 流通的抗體對被接種的病毒是存在在多數狗和貓3 到5 年在他們的前接種以後。許多貓對似貓的腸炎是免疫的為他們的一生在一接種以後。 (5)

幾當局譬如科羅拉多大學獸醫學校、美國和Massey 大學獸醫學校, 紐西蘭, 改變了他們的接種協議從每年到三週年紀念(每3 年) 為狗和貓。

這些推薦根據清液抗體水平, 是測量的免疫單程, 但它由一些認為對疾病的自然免疫總之可能存在沒有可測量的抗體滴定量。這是一項基本免疫學原則, 高抗體滴定量發生當一個成熟健康免疫系統被質詢; 它像有用不是易察覺的根據現有的高滴定量在挑戰之前, 是什麼每年接種生產。

它並且不是易察覺的接種幼小動物在減少母親抗體之前因為發育未全的系統無法應付- 所以自然做了母親抗體!

使用 homoeopathic nosodes 增添母親抗體然後使用殺害, 理想地單價, 接種在母親抗體decline 如果需要被證明減少嚴厲疫苗導致的immunocompromisation 在有傾向養殖 (9)。使用homoeopathic nosodes 只如同預防像常規接種證明在幾次勘測是signifigantly 一樣有效的在防止傳染病 (7) (8), 雖然研究入更多種類和疾病是需要的。

它能被爭論, 我們當前的常規接種協議不根據酣然的免疫學原則。

這個觀點由理查・itcairn, 是微生物學副教授的獸醫博士舉行並且被專門研究在免疫學方面在華盛頓州大學獸醫學校。他成為了醒悟以常規免疫學和接種和轉向homoeopathy 。他純淨地homoeopathically 現在跑動物自然健康中心在俄勒岡、美國和實踐。他多年來訓練了許多獸醫在homoeopathy 。 (6)

一些寵物所有者也許選擇使他們的動物有 抗體驗血 當是每年接種時間。如果水平是高, 那麼動物明年回來有驗血。接種只被執行如果水平是低。這個方法由狩醫使用在有對訴訟的關心由動物所有者有害地起反應對接種他們無法否則證明是必要的其它國家。

對獸醫接種的一種聯合方法
它被顯示, 更多接種為不同的疾病同時被執行, 較不可能的他們是工作和更加可能減弱免疫系統 (8)。

這是顯然的特別在狗被給狂犬病、細螺旋體病和均勻破傷風接種, 並且慍怒、肝炎、parvo 和二狗窩咳嗽被給在澳洲的美國。

這意味著它是醫療上不健康的接種為非地方性疾病譬如慍怒和肝炎因為 parvo 組分是較不可能是有效的。

接種為 狗窩咳嗽在狗 醫療上是因此不太聲音因為它是也許減弱更加有用的parvo 分數的額外疫苗(或二), 並且狗窩咳嗽不是一種威脅生命的疾病。看起來, 常規狗窩咳嗽接種不是非常有效的因為儘管狗窩所有者堅持, 狗被接種在boarding 之前, 狗窩咳嗽是仍然一個問題(常識!!) 。

更加有效會是刺激免疫系統由對即維生素C 的用途(250mg 為一隻小貓對2000mg 為一條大狗, 每日兩次), 免疫興奮劑草本像echinacea, 蘑菇萃取物並且/或者距骨(四分之一對整體人的藥量根據動物的大小) 並且homoeopathic 狗窩咳嗽nosode (藥量作為下面) 。

全部接種節目
任一個接種節目應該為專門製作個體, 但下列是一個寬廣的指南。

I 推薦因此homoeopathic nosodes 在8 個星期年齡和如果必須常規地接種的小狗為parvovirus 只在12 個星期年紀(ie 不是為distemper/hepatitis/kennel 咳嗽), 另外一年後然後每3 年爾後, 或使用homoeopathic nosodes 只為慍怒, parvo 和狗窩咳嗽。

我認為它重要有 每年核對 因為這將保存所有者由及早防止從長遠看花費問題。 預防醫療保健比醫院護理以後證明便宜 - 要求任一個政府! ( 寵物保險 高度被推薦, 如同所有者能然後預算他們的寵物的年度費用) 。

Homoeopathic 30C (或其它有力依照由實習者規定) nosode 可能由所有者每日兩次口頭執行3 天, 一次每週在一個月然後月度在6 個月和然後每6 個月為狗生活的剩餘或在增加的風險之前即與狗窩咳嗽, 移動的房子聯繫, 顯示等。

它現今不是道德地可能運載嚴密的古典研究確切地顯示多麼有效的homoeopathic nosodes 是在防止疾病, 但幾個真實情況顯示了對慍怒的發生和發生的重大減少在RSPCA 磅對利茲對狗 (4)。

許多biodynamic 農夫使用homoeopathic 鏈球菌並且葡萄球菌30C 在奶牛水低谷或飼料減少體細胞計數在牛奶 (7) 裡。

從個人經驗, 我有狗一再捉住狗窩咳嗽儘管每年C5 接種的幾位狗交配動物者, 但當給口頭homoeopathic 狗窩咳嗽nosodes, 少量狗非常遭受了狗窩咳嗽所有症狀幾年來在末端。

平衡的自然飲食沒有被裝罐的或乾被處理的食物幫助狗的自然免疫對疾病。

為貓, 我推薦homoeopathic nosodes (通常30C) 似貓的腸炎、貓流感(calici 和herpes 病毒), 似貓的愛滋病和似貓的白血病。

平衡的未加工的肉飲食加上藥物和化學製品用法的自然草本補充和低估產生大變化對貓的自然免疫對疾病。

為貓特別有傾向對貓流感, 常規接種也許幫助(給當他們是好的) 並且可能似貓的白血病接種為得到在貓戰鬥與未知的健康狀態貓的貓。

保留貓主要裡面幫助減少疾病傳播和需要接種為白血病和幫助野生生物。(我曾經人體工學決定最佳的選擇為個體) 。

任一接種應該只被給當動物免於完全任一個深刻或慢性疾病的標誌並且不是在麻醉劑或其它藥物的同時。

它總是有利每日兩次給維生素C 上述 藥量, 免疫促進的草本和並且homoeopathic thuja 30C 為一天前面, 接種的天和2-3 天隨後而來。這可能減輕 下落在定期地 發生在多數正常動物4 天在接種的淋巴細胞活動(CSL 資料以後) 。

很多我們的客戶年年帶來他們的寵物為 人體工學屏幕, 藉以我們使用肌肉反應測試檢查動物能量領域看什麼vaccinations/treatments 會是最佳為那個動物那時。 這是我過去常為我自己的家庭和寵物確定最佳的療法的方法。

選擇接種節目的道德考慮
決定應該由所有者, 不是狩醫最後做出, 並且所有者應該然後支持在那個決定。

我們全部有我們自己各自的真相。

我有所有者要我接種他們的動物的許多案件並且我不要對, 既使當我解釋了我的看法很好。它完全是他們的權利選擇。

它重要, 實習者不使用他們的患者作為他們自己的療法緩和他們的有罪良心為我們有overvaccinated 作為社會的事實。

我們必須各個動物和所有者和把個體看作。

我們必須記得, 它是非常驚恐使某些人民從一個安全和可預測的常規協議行動和承擔對他們自己和他們的寵物的健康的責任。如果我們太迅速推擠他們, 他們也許撤退進一步入他們的老方式。

我有Weimeraner 小狗死了於接種反應10 天在接種的一個客戶(由死後之後證實在Murdoch 大學) - 這養殖可能被負擔以一種先天地微弱的免疫系統和倖存者必需的廣泛的治療為同樣問題。她堅持安排替換小狗充分地被接種常規地和在有我們消炎它之後。狗有高度異常, 嚴厲崗位外科傳染可歸屬對一個被降下的免疫系統儘管適當的手術, 抗生素並且免疫支持和所有者是確信的她做出正確選擇接種。

它不是我們的工作判斷或強制。

許多反接種運動家說, 狩醫年年接種掙金錢。 這也許是真實的對幾貪婪的個體(誰存在在少數在所有社會地位) 僅我遇見了的多數狩醫, 並且我遇見了一個市場少數在20 年, 真正地在這裡幫助動物。

有舒適在接種做我們感受我們保護動物。 我們現在有證據相反, 我們能改變我們的想法以問心無愧。

多數狩醫工作長時間, 不是在非常高薪水並且主角非常緊張生活由於在幾小時以後運作和承擔很多責任。

自殺是在珀斯至少, 行業被迫執行勘測發現解答的這樣問題。

被減少的收入以破產也許收效在狩醫之中在理論上如果每年接種被減少在頻率, 但我不認為必須發生如果狩醫能繼續提供一個關心和更加全部的資訊基地為寵物所有者, 並且逐漸和 thinkingly 改變重點到預防物或"健康維護" 醫學。

作為一位全部獸醫, 我意識到可能改善幫助動物比純淨地常規醫學的多血症自然療法形式。

已經, 有狩醫並且成為的其它實習者非常成功地合格了和實踐的按摩脊柱治療者、針刺、craniosacral 療法, Bowen 療法, homoeopathy, herbology, 花精華等在動物。

有並且不充分地被運用譬如生物化學的屏幕為liver/kidney/panceas 疾病、忠告在鍛煉和飲食為老年醫學的患者防止關節炎和其它服務的許多其它預防措施可利用。
A HOLISTIC APPROACH TO VETERINARY VACCINATION
by Dr. Clare Middle BVMS, Dip Hom, Dip Ac.

Huge changes should be afoot with the protocol vets are using regarding vaccination of pet animals in light of evidence to suggest that only vaccination for serious endemic disease should be carried out and then only either once in a lifetime or at most every three to five years (5)(8).

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The incentive for reducing vaccination is that various reports show serious immune system suppression in significant numbers of pet animals and humans resulting from routine annual or regular vaccination (1) (9) (10).

This should be a wonderful story of mainstream conventional veterinary science merging with holistic health principles to the great future benefit of our companion animals which will hopefully set an example for human medical practice.

The Conventional Medicine Story Up Until Now
When I graduated as a vet 20 years ago, I saw several dogs die of distemper and viral hepatitis, and cats die of feline enteritis. I saw huge numbers of dogs die of parvoviral infection. After daily having to treat several rooms-full of puppies dying of intractable vomiting and passing blood for faeces, there was no way I would ever suggest not vaccinating healthy puppies for parvovirus, a vaccination which worked well and had minimal side-effects.

Now, twenty years later, there is scarcely any distemper or hepatitis in dogs and very little feline enteritis in cats in Australia. Most capital cities could be declared free of distemper and infectious viral hepatitis in dogs, with a very occasional small outbreak in country towns (Dr P. Little, CSL).

There are small outbreaks of parvovirus in young puppies in some city suburbs from time to time but rarely if ever in mature dogs, and the survival rate of those puppies affected is higher than it used to be.

"No surprise" say epidemiologists and historians. Throughout history, the course of infectious disease has followed the classic "bell" shaped graph, with a slowly tapering reduction in cases on the right-hand side of the page. Interestingly, this graph is usually a similar shape whether a vaccine has been used or not during a particular epidemic.

I think with dog vaccinations, they tend to shift the disease away from the vaccinated, well-cared for puppies to the low socioeconomic group of largely unvaccinated pockets in the community. However, there is ample evidence to show that in many epidemics of human disease, vaccination has not helped to reduce the incidence of disease and repeated vaccination has worsened it (yes, true)(10).

So, now, we tend to think our pets have a high level of health because there is a low level of infectious epidemic disease, but they are no different from us in that nowadays they have a high rate of allergies, cancer and chronic rather than acute disease.

There is good evidence now that all the vaccinations and drugs and commercial processed foods used are cumulatively lowering the immune systems of our pets (1).

At least two surveys, one in USA (9) and one in England (1), have shown that there is a very statistically significant rise in animals being presented to vets for a variety of sicknesses within the weeks following their annual vaccination, inferring that the vaccination has lowered their ability to withstand disease.

Published veterinary research has shown the rate of autoimmune haemolytic anaemia in dogs to be significantly linked with vaccination and likewise the growth of lymphosarcoma tumour at the vaccination site in cats. (2) & (3)

Some animals have severe allergic reactions soon after vaccination and some may be quiet or have a fever 2 or 3 days afterwards. These signs should be taken seriously by vets and noted on medical records and reported to drug companies because these reactions will tend to be more severe after the next vaccination. It would also be helpful to report them to Canine Health Concern who are conducting a survey(1) and to adverse drug reaction authorities.

There has been a blind spot of vets not logically correlating symptoms occurring after vaccination and other drugs, and this is annoying to the public and is not good PR for the veterinary profession.

The Holistic Health Story Up Until Now
For decades, homoeopaths have been taught the concept of "vaccinosis" which is a term meaning disease caused by vaccination. I have been using homoeopathy to treat animals with long-term or difficult conditions for 12 years, and have repeatedly caused improvement in their conditions using remedies for vaccinoses.

In other words, the chronic disease must, in part, have been caused by vaccination.

Many natural therapists have been aware that repeated vaccination is likely to be part of the cause of chronic allergy and other diseases, and this is now backed up by research in humans and animals (1) (9) (10).

I have for many years offered pet owners a choice of using conventional vaccination for only the diseases that significantly threaten life, and/or homoeopathic nosodes combined with a carefully balanced natural diet (no tinned or dried processed pet food) to improve natural immunity.

I have been very unwilling to conventionally vaccinate again a dog suffering a suspected vaccinosis, but it is always the owner's choice.

Worldwide Changes to Veterinary Vaccination Protocol

In recent years, research has been carried out which has shown that circulating antibodies to vaccinated viruses are still present in most dogs and cats 3 to 5 years after their last vaccination. Many cats are immune to feline enteritis for their whole life after one vaccination. (5)

Several authorities such as Colorado University Veterinary School, USA and Massey University Veterinary School, New Zealand, have changed their vaccination protocol from annual to triennial (every 3 years) for dogs and cats.

These recommendations are based on serum antibody levels, which is one way of measuring immunity, but it is thought by some that natural immunity to disease in general can exist without measurable antibody titres. It is a basic immunological principle that high antibody titres occur when a mature healthy immune system is challenged; it is not sensible to base existing high titres prior to challenge as useful, which is what annual vaccination produces.

It is also not sensible to vaccinate young animals before the waning of maternal antibody as the immature system cannot cope - that is why nature made maternal antibodies!

Using homoeopathic nosodes to augment maternal antibody then using killed, ideally monovalent, vaccination if necessary at decline of maternal antibody has been proven to reduce severe vaccine-induced immunocompromisation in prone breeds (9). Using homoeopathic nosodes only as prophylaxis has been shown in several surveys to be signifigantly as effective in preventing infectious disease as conventional vaccination (7) (8), although research into more species and diseases is needed.

It could be argued that our current conventional vaccination protocol is not based on sound immunological principles.

This viewpoint is held by Dr. Richard Pitcairn, a veterinarian who was Associate Professor of Microbiology and specialized in immunology at the Washington State University Veterinary School. He became disenchanted with conventional immunology and vaccinations and turned to homoeopathy. He now runs the Animal Natural Health Centre in Oregon, USA and practices purely homoeopathically. He has trained many veterinarians in homoeopathy over the years. (6)

Some pet owners may choose for their animal to have an antibody blood test when it is annual vaccination time. If levels are high, then the animal comes back next year to have a blood test. Vaccination is only carried out if levels are low. This method is employed by vets in other countries where there is concern about litigation by owners of animals who react adversely to a vaccination they cannot otherwise prove was necessary.

An Integrated Approach to Veterinary Vaccination
It has been shown that the more vaccinations for different diseases are administered at the same time, the less likely they are to work and the more likely to compromise the immune system (8).

This is evident particularly in the USA where dogs are given rabies, leptospirosis and even tetanus vaccinations, as well as the distemper, hepatitis, parvo and two kennel coughs that are given in Australia.

This means it is medically unsound to vaccinate for non-endemic disease such as distemper and hepatitis because the parvo component is less likely to be effective.

Vaccinating for kennel cough in dogs is therefore even less sound medically because it is an extra vaccine (or two) which may weaken the more useful parvo fraction, and kennel cough is not a life-threatening disease. It appears that conventional kennel cough vaccination is not very effective because despite kennel owners insisting that dogs be vaccinated before boarding, kennel cough is still a problem (general knowledge!!).

Much more effective would be to stimulate the immune system by the use of eg vitamin C (250mg for a kitten to 2000mg for a large dog, twice daily), immune stimulant herbs like echinacea, mushroom extracts and/or astragalus (one quarter to a whole human dose depending on size of animal) and homoeopathic kennel cough nosode (dose as below).

Holistic Vaccination Program
Any vaccination program should be tailored to the individual, but the following is a broad guide.

I therefore recommend homoeopathic nosodes at 8 weeks of age and if required conventionally vaccinating puppies for parvovirus only at 12 weeks old (ie not for distemper/hepatitis/kennel cough), then again one year later then every 3 years thereafter, or using homoeopathic nosodes only for distemper, parvo and kennel cough.

minibabyqq 2006-12-20 03:56

轉貼自4682


[color=Magenta][b][size=5]關於疫苗抗體[/size][/b][/color]

當前的辯論在獸醫方面關於問題與疫苗效力和安全以及免疫的期間關係了, 被現在可以得到的疫苗, 底線導致對更加客觀和更加科學的資料的強制需要。清液抗體滴定量的決心是一個方法常用估計對一定數量疾病導致的有機體的主人體液免疫反應。在狗, 清液似犬parvovirus (CPV) 並且 似犬慍怒病毒(CDV) 抗體滴定量被測量用過去幫助估計免疫的期間被疫苗導致反對這兩病毒。理論基礎為選擇他們導致的CPV 和CDV 為清液抗體測試根據臨床重要疾病, 與host.s 體液免疫反應的有用性對這些病毒的結合為確定對revaccination 的需要。

雖然測量清液滴定量在貓不是研究的目標被總結這裡, 對似貓的疾病的一種相似的方法申請。一項研究發現了充分清液抗體滴定量持續至少6 年為 似貓的panleukopenia virus, 4 年為似貓的calcivirus, 和3 年為似貓的herpesvirus 在貓被接種在8 個和12 個星期年齡與多價被殺死的疫苗。隨後挑戰研究的結果與這些貓支持了保護的更加早期的預言被做根據抗體滴定量。

方法

清液樣品被獲得了從狗在定期醫療保健參觀期間從各種各樣的獸醫診所橫跨美國和加拿大。大多狗(1,169; 81.1%) 是純血統的動物和代表114 不同養殖, 養殖他們的各自大眾化頻率總代表當伴侶動物。二百五十二條狗是混雜養殖; 養殖未被報告為20 條(1.4%) 狗。狗範圍從6 個星期對17 年年紀。只3 條(0.2%) 狗是< 4 個月大。有400 個性原封男性, 222 個被閹割的男性, 451 位性原封女性, 351 spayed 女性, 和性未被報告的17 條狗。疫苗歷史為468 1,441 條(32.5%) 狗由遞交的獸醫報告了; 所有除了4 這些狗早先被接種了。為75 條狗, 清液抗體滴定量年年被測量了早先2 (n = 59), 3 (13), 4 (2), 和5 (1) 年, 並且所有滴定量依然是充分。CPV 和CDV 滴定量是> 1:5 的三十三個清液樣品任意地被選擇和連續地被稀釋確定滴定量終點。

抗體滴定量是堅定的利用immunofluorescent 抗體方法。1,441 似犬parvovirus (CPV) 並且1,379 似犬慍怒病毒(CDV) 抗體滴定量被評估了。一個充分抗體反應被確定是= 1:5 依照由IFA 方法確定。

結果

年齡、養殖, 和性顯著未同充分清液CPV- 或CDV 具體抗體反應聯繫在一起。一千三百和七十1,441 條(95.1%) 狗有充分並且71 (4.9%) 有對CPV 的不充分的抗體反應, 但是1,346 1,379 條(97.6%) 狗有充分並且33 (2.4%) 有對CDV 的不充分的反應。接種歷史是可利用的為468 條狗(468 為CPV 和457 為CDV) 。間隔時間在前次接種和抗體測量之間在在1 和2 年之間為多數狗(281/468; 60.0%) 和在2 和7 年之間為142 468 條(30.3%) 狗。間隔時間是< 1 年在只45 468 條(9.6%) 狗中。

33 個清液樣品連續地被稀釋確定終點滴定量, 終點滴定量為CPV 範圍從1:10 到1:320; 中間終點是1:128 。為 CDV, 終點滴定量範圍從1:10 到1:1,280, 以一個中間終點1:256 。所以, 終點滴定量為CPV 和CDV 在IFA 滴定量是> 1:5 的狗可能是更高的。

468 條狗以可利用的疫苗歷史, 401 423 (94.8%) 有對CPV 的一個充分反應超過1 年在接種以後, 和390 412 (94.7%) 有對CDV 的一個充分反應超過1 年在接種以後。而且, 133 142 條(93.7%) 狗和127 136 條(93.4%) 狗有對CPV 和CDV 的充分 反應, 各自, 超過2 年在接種以後。

討論

測量的清液抗體滴定量的目標在伴侶動物是提供一個合理的方式建立是否一個單獨動物有對一個指定的疾病代理的一個充分抗體反應, 並且使用這資訊作為需要的實用顯示對revaccination 的。抗體滴定量在這中狗的研究人口是可能的預先的免役的結果與任一自然曝光被結合, 和建議, 這些狗有充分免疫學記憶, 提供動物以保護免受臨床疾病在自然病毒挑戰的機制。

本研究的結果表明, 充分抗體滴定量對CPV 一致地輕微地被發現了較少比對CDV 。狗的數量以不充分的 CPV 滴定量但充分CDV 滴定量(53 71; 75%) 比狗的數量顯著高級以不充分的CDV 滴定量但充分CPV 滴定量(15 33; 45%) 。幾個因素也許解釋這些研究結果。一些狗以不充分的CPV 滴定量也許不充分地免疫了作為小狗。這發生當母親地被獲得的抗體是以高足夠的集中干涉接種, 但不高足夠提供保護。這能解釋他們對 revaccination 的粗劣的免疫學反應作為成人。另外, 狗(即, Rottweiler, Doberman pinscher, 拉布拉多獵犬某些養殖, 阿拉斯加拉雪橇狗, pomeranian, 和美國Staffordshire 狗) 有困難登上對CPV 的一個適當的免疫反應。血清學能執行在小狗在這些易受影響的養殖被接種確定之後是否一個充分免疫反應建立了。

一些狗從未看上去登上對接種的一個充分抗體反應, 但保留健康, 據推測由於免疫存儲單元細胞和黏膜免疫反應的堅持和發展, 或供選擇地, 缺乏對感染病毒的暴露。它也許是適當停止接種這些 狗, 特別是如果他們體驗了有害反應對接種從前。

結論

由年年測量清液抗體滴定量, 你可能估計指定的dog.s 的水平對CPV 和CDV 的體液免疫反應。本研究的結果表明, 健康狗的大百分比有清液抗體滴定量對CPV 和CDV, 不管時間的期間從前接種。而且, 狗以已知的CPV 和CDV 接種歷史, 133 142 (93.7%) 並且127 136 條(93.4%) 狗, 各自地, 有清液抗體反應即使他們有前接受了疫苗超過2 年前。這些結果支持論點, 每年接種為這些病毒疾病是多餘的在許多情況下。

以回應改變的觀點關於對每年助推器接種的需要, 獸醫vaccinologists 推薦了新協議為狗和貓。這些有:

1. 給小狗或小貓疫苗系列被助推器跟隨在一年紀;
2. 執行的進一步助推器在組合疫苗每三年或和分裂組分每隔一年交替直到;
3. 寵物到達老年醫學的年齡, 那時助推器接種可能是多餘的, 也許是不妥當的為那些以老化或免疫學混亂。

在干預的歲月在助推器接種之間, 和在老年醫學的寵物情況下, 流通的體液免疫反對臨床重要傳染物質可能由測量評估清液疫苗抗體滴定量作為"免疫記憶出現的徵兆。" 滴定量不區別在對疾病代理的免疫由接種引起並且/或者暴露之間, 雖然巨大免疫由接種導致通常是更低。

  
除了接種由法律必需的地方, 所有動物, 但特別是那些早先體驗有害反應對接種, 能有清液抗體滴定量年年被測量代替revaccination 。如果充分滴定量被發現, 動物不應該需要revaccination 直到不少遠期。復校抗體滴定量爾後年年進行, 或可能被提供作為選擇寵愛喜歡不跟隨每年助推器常規實踐的所有者。可靠的血清學疫苗titering 是可利用的通過Antech 在合理的費用。

較少被出版了關於免疫的期間跟隨接種, 雖然新資料開始出現為狗和貓。最近出版Antech 研究(JAVMA, 2000 10月1 日), 被評估1441 條狗為CPV 抗體滴定量和1379 條狗為CDV 抗體滴定量。這些, 95.1% 被判斷有充分CPV 滴定量, 並且幾乎所有(97.6%) 有充分CDV 滴定量。疫苗歷史是可利用的為444 條狗(CPV) 並且433 條狗(CDV) 。只43 條狗被接種了在去年之內, 以多數狗(268 或60%) 予先被接受助推器接種1-2 年。根據我們的資料, 我們認為, 每年revaccination 是多餘的。

相似的資料最近被出版了為貓(AJVR, 1999 年5月; JAVMA, 2002) 1月1 日, 。15 隻被接種的和17 隻未注射過的無具體病原生物小貓的一項更加早期的研究被給被撤消的三倍疫苗2 藥量被顯示堅持高抗體滴定量反對似貓的panleukopenia 病毒(FPV) 至少6 年, 和可測量的滴定量反對似貓的herpesvirus (FHV) 並且似貓的calicivirus (FCV) 至少3 和4 年, 各自地。9 隻被接種的和8 隻未注射過的貓的followup 挑戰研究從最初的小組顯示了高FPV 滴定量在7.5 年以後和堅實保護反對挑戰。為FHV 和FCV, 滴定量逐漸declined 和貓部份地被保護了免受病毒挑戰(52% 相對疫苗效力為FHV, 63% 相對疫苗效力為FCV) 。

這些同樣病毒的一項大研究在72 實驗室撫養了並且276 客戶擁有貓發現了相似的有預測性的疫苗效力根據血清學滴定量測試。實驗室被飼養的貓被接種了與三倍valent 疫苗和然後挑戰了與劇毒病毒9-36 個月以後。血清學滴定量測試是100% 有預測性保護為FPV 和FCV, 和90% 為FHV 。在客戶擁有貓, 92.4% 是滴定量正面為FCV, 70.7% 為FHV, 和68.5% 為FPV 。作者認為, FPV 的偵查-, FHV- 和FCV 具體抗體是有預測性的是否貓是易受這些疾病不管疫苗型或接種間隔時間。因而, 滴定量測試可靠地是有預測性的對傳染的抵抗, 可能被使用避免多餘的接種。

當充分免疫記憶已經建立, 有一點原因介紹多餘的抗原、輔藥, 和防腐劑由執行助推器疫苗。由titering 年年, 你可能估計是否一個指定的動物的體液免疫反應下落了在充分水平之下。在那次事件, 一臺適當的疫苗助推器可能被執行。

滴定量 測試編碼 TAT *
Distemper/Parvovirus 疫苗滴定量 SA150 2 天
Distemper/Parvo/Corona 疫苗滴定量 1561 年 3-5 天
Coronavirus (IgG) 疫苗滴定量 S16014 3-5 天
Leptosporosis 滴定量 S16510 5-7 天
Lyme (IgG) 滴定量 T670 2 天
肝炎錫(腺病毒) 滴定量 S16380 7-10 天
Parainfluenza 滴定量II 6585 7-10 天
Bordetella 滴定量 S16077 7-10 天
  

滴定量 測試編碼 TAT *
Panleukopenia 滴定量 S16053 3-5 天
FeLV 滴定量 S17119 3-5 天
Calicivirus 滴定量 S16112 10-14 天
Rhinotracheitis 病毒滴定量 S16702 10-14 天
似貓的疫苗盤區 S16581 10-14 天
  
狂犬病滴定量 S16685 10-14 天
The following update discusses use of serologic viral antibody titers for determining the need for revaccination of healthy pets (see Antech News, April; 1998 for background). The information summarizes Antech𠏋 recently published article from the October 1, 2000 issue of the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association.

Current debate in veterinary medicine concerning issues related to vaccine efficacy and safety, as well as the duration of immunity induced by the currently available vaccines, underscores a compelling need for more objective and scientific data. Determination of serum antibody titers is one method commonly used to assess host humoral immune responses to a number of disease-causing organisms. In dogs, serum canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) antibody titers have been measured in the past to help assess duration of immunity induced by vaccines against these two viruses. The rationale for selecting CPV and CDV for serum antibody testing is based on the clinically important diseases they cause, combined with the usefulness of the host𠏋 humoral immune response to these viruses for determining the need for revaccination.

Although measuring serum titers in cats was not a goal of the study summarized here, a similar approach to feline diseases applies. One study found adequate serum antibody titers to last for at least 6 years for feline panleukopenia virus, 4 years for feline calcivirus, and 3 years for feline herpesvirus in cats vaccinated at 8 and 12 weeks of age with polyvalent killed vaccine. Results of subsequent challenge studies with these cats supported the earlier predictions of protection made on the basis of antibody titers.

METHODS

Serum samples were obtained from dogs during routine healthcare visits from various veterinary clinics across the United States and Canada. Most of the dogs (1,169; 81.1%) were purebreds and represented 114 different breeds, with breed frequencies generally representative of their respective popularity as companion animals. Two hundred fifty-two dogs were of mixed breeding; breed was not reported for 20 (1.4%) dogs. Dogs ranged from 6 weeks to 17 years old. Only 3 (0.2%) dogs were < 4 months old. There were 400 sexually intact males, 222 neutered males, 451 sexually intact females, 351 spayed females, and 17 dogs for which sex was not reported. Vaccine histories for 468 of 1,441 (32.5%) dogs were reported by the submitting veterinarians; all but 4 of these dogs had been vaccinated previously. For 75 dogs, serum antibody titers had been measured annually for the previous 2 (n = 59), 3 (13), 4 (2), and 5 (1) years, and all titers remained adequate. Thirty-three serum samples for which CPV and CDV titers were > 1:5 were randomly selected and serially diluted to determine the titer endpoints.

Antibody titers were determined by use of the immunofluorescent antibody method. 1,441 canine parvovirus (CPV) and 1,379 canine distemper virus (CDV) antibody titers were evaluated. An adequate antibody response was determined to be =1:5 as determined by the IFA method.

RESULTS

Age, breed, and sex were not significantly associated with adequate serum CPV- or CDV-specific antibody responses. One thousand three hundred and seventy of 1,441 (95.1%) dogs had adequate and 71 (4.9%) had inadequate antibody responses to CPV, whereas 1,346 of 1,379 (97.6%) dogs had adequate and 33 (2.4%) had inadequate responses to CDV. Vaccination histories were available for 468 dogs (468 for CPV and 457 for CDV). The interval between last vaccination and antibody measurement was between 1 and 2 years for the majority of dogs (281/468; 60.0%) and between 2 and 7 years for 142 of 468 (30.3%) dogs. The interval was < 1 year in only 45 of 468 (9.6%) dogs.

Of the 33 serum samples that were serially diluted to determine endpoint titers, endpoint titers for CPV ranged from 1:10 to 1:320; the median endpoint was 1:128. For CDV, endpoint titers ranged from 1:10 to 1:1,280, with a median endpoint of 1:256. Therefore, the endpoint titers for CPV and CDV in dogs for which IFA titers were > 1:5 are likely to be higher.

Of the 468 dogs with available vaccine histories, 401 of 423 (94.8%) had an adequate response to CPV for more than 1 year after vaccination, and 390 of 412 (94.7%) had an adequate response to CDV for more than 1 year after vaccination. Moreover, 133 of 142 (93.7%) dogs and 127 of 136 (93.4%) dogs had adequate responses to CPV and CDV, respectively, more than 2 years after vaccination.

DISCUSSION

The goal of measuring serum antibody titers in companion animals is to provide a rational way of establishing whether an individual animal has an adequate antibody response to a given disease agent, and of using this information as a practical indicator of the need for revaccination. Antibody titers in this study population of dogs were likely a result of prior immunization combined with any natural exposure, and suggest that these dogs had adequate immunologic memory, the mechanism that provides animals with protection from clinical disease upon natural viral challenge.

Results of the present study indicate that adequate antibody titers to CPV were found slightly less consistently than to CDV. The number of dogs with an inadequate CPV titer but an adequate CDV titer (53 of 71; 75%) was significantly higher than the number of dogs with an inadequate CDV titer but an adequate CPV titer (15 of 33; 45%). Several factors may explain these findings. Some of the dogs with inadequate CPV titers may have been inadequately immunized as puppies. This occurs when maternally derived antibodies are at a high enough concentration to interfere with vaccination, but not high enough to provide protection. This could explain their poor immunologic response to revaccination as adults. In addition, certain breeds of dogs (e.g., Rottweiler, Doberman pinscher, Labrador retriever, Alaskan sled dog, pomeranian, and American Staffordshire terrier) have difficulty mounting an appropriate immune response to CPV. Serology could be performed after puppies in these susceptible breeds are vaccinated to determine whether an adequate immune response has been established.

Some dogs never appear to mount an adequate antibody response to vaccination, but remain healthy, presumably because of persistence of immune memory cells and development of cell-mediated and mucosal immune responses, or alternatively, lack of exposure to infectious virus. It may be appropriate to stop vaccinating these dogs, especially if they had experienced adverse reactions to vaccination in the past.

CONCLUSION

By measuring serum antibody titers annually, one can assess the level of a given dog𠏋 humoral immune response to CPV and CDV. Results of the present study indicate that a large percentage of healthy dogs have serum antibody titers to CPV and CDV, regardless of duration of time since last vaccination. Moreover, of the dogs with a known CPV and CDV vaccination history, 133 of 142 (93.7%) and 127 of 136 (93.4%) dogs, respectively, had serum antibody responses even though they had last received a vaccine more than 2 years ago. These results support the contention that annual vaccination for these viral diseases is unnecessary in most cases.

In response to the changing viewpoint about the need for annual booster vaccinations, veterinary vaccinologists have recommended new protocols for dogs and cats. These include:

1. giving the puppy or kitten vaccine series followed by a booster at one year of age;
2. administering further boosters in a combination vaccine every three years or as split components alternating every other year until;
3. the pet reaches geriatric age, at which time booster vaccination is likely to be unnecessary and may be inadvisable for those with aging or immunologic disorders.

In the intervening years between booster vaccinations, and in the case of geriatric pets, circulating humoral immunity against the clinically important infectious agents can be evaluated by measuring serum vaccine antibody titers as an indication of the presence of “immune memory.” Titers do not distinguish between immunity generated by vaccination and/or exposure to disease agents, although the magnitude of immunity produced just by vaccination is usually lower.

  
Except where vaccination is required by law, all animals, but especially those that previously experienced an adverse reaction to vaccination, can have serum antibody titers measured annually instead of revaccination. If adequate titers are found, the animal should not need revaccination until some future date. Rechecking antibody titers can be performed annually thereafter, or can be offered as an alternative to pet owners who prefer not to follow the conventional practice of annual boosters. Reliable serologic vaccine titering is available through Antech at a reasonable cost.

Relatively little has been published about the duration of immunity following vaccination, although new data are beginning to appear for both dogs and cats. The recently published Antech study (JAVMA, October 1, 2000), evaluated 1441 dogs for CPV antibody titer and 1379 dogs for CDV antibody titer. Of these, 95.1% were judged to have adequate CPV titers, and nearly all (97.6%) had adequate CDV titers. Vaccine histories were available for 444 dogs (CPV) and 433 dogs (CDV). Only 43 dogs had been vaccinated within the previous year, with the majority of dogs (268 or 60%) having received a booster vaccination 1-2 years beforehand. On the basis of our data, we concluded that annual revaccination is unnecessary.

Similar data have been published recently for cats (AJVR, May 1999; JAVMA, January 1, 2002). An earlier study of 15 vaccinated and 17 unvaccinated specific-pathogen-free kittens given 2 doses of inactivated triple vaccine showed persistent high antibody titers against feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) for at least 6 years, and measurable titers against feline herpesvirus (FHV) and feline calicivirus (FCV) for at least 3 and 4 years, respectively. A followup challenge study of 9 vaccinated and 8 unvaccinated cats from the initial groups showed high FPV titers after 7.5 years and solid protection against challenge. For FHV and FCV, titers declined gradually and the cats were partially protected against viral challenge (52% relative vaccine efficacy for FHV, 63% relative vaccine efficacy for FCV).

A large study of these same viruses in 72 laboratory reared and 276 client owned cats found similar predictive vaccine efficacy based on serologic titer testing. The laboratory reared cats were vaccinated with a triple valent vaccine and then challenged with virulent viruses 9-36 months later. Serologic titer testing was 100% predictive of protection for FPV and FCV, and 90% for FHV. In the client owned cats, 92.4% were titer positive for FCV, 70.7% for FHV, and 68.5% for FPV. The authors concluded that detection of FPV-, FHV- and FCV-specific antibodies is predictive of whether cats are susceptible to these diseases regardless of the vaccine type or vaccination interval. Thus, titer testing is reliably predictive of resistance to infection and can be used to avoid unnecessary vaccination.

When an adequate immune memory has already been established, there is little reason to introduce unnecessary antigen, adjuvant, and preservatives by administering booster vaccines. By titering annually, one can assess whether a given animal's humoral immune response has fallen below adequate levels. In that event, an appropriate vaccine booster can be administered.
DOGS
TITER Test Code TAT*
Distemper/Parvovirus Vaccine Titer SA150 2 days
Distemper/Parvo/Corona Vaccine Titer 1561 3-5 days
Coronavirus (IgG) Vaccine Titer S16014 3-5 days
Leptosporosis Titer S16510 5-7 days
Lyme (IgG) Titer T670 2 days
Hepatitis SN (Adenovirus) Titer S16380 7-10 days
Parainfluenza Titer II 6585 7-10 days
Bordetella Titer S16077 7-10 days
  
CATS
TITER Test Code TAT*
Panleukopenia Titer S16053 3-5 days
FeLV Titer S17119 3-5 days
Calicivirus Titer S16112 10-14 days
Rhinotracheitis Virus Titer S16702 10-14 days
Feline Vaccine Panel S16581 10-14 days
  
Rabies Titer S16685 10-14 days

minibabyqq 2006-12-20 03:57

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[color=Magenta][size=5][b]營養和免疫系統[/b][/size][/color]

營養和免疫系統
衛生營養是鑰匙對維護對疾病的健康免疫系統和抵抗。營養缺乏或不平衡狀態並且對各種各樣的化學製品、藥物和毒素的暴露提出可能壓制免疫作用的一個持續的免疫學挑戰, 特別是在那些動物基因上易受影響免疫官能不良(免疫缺乏、autoimmunity, 過敏) 。

基因區別在個體之間導致在飲食要求上定量變化維護健康。基因瑕疵也許還導致影響一個或更多路介入營養素或他們的代謝產物新陳代謝的天生錯誤。當最小和最大的營養要求建立了的多數維生素和追蹤礦質元素, 最宜的數額為每個體不應該被承擔。重要維生素和礦物要求例子就此包括維生素C 、維生素E 和硒、維生素A 、銅和維生素B-12 。同樣, 一種變化繁多發生在狗能源需求根據他們的養殖、年齡、性, 和大小。

充當在免疫作用的一個重要角色的營養因素包括鋅、硒和維生素E 、維生素B-6 (pyridoxine), 和亞麻酸酸。這些化合物缺乏削弱兩體液並且細胞免疫。根本營養素增量的要求在迅速增長或再生產的期間和也許還增加在老年醫學的個體, 因為免疫作用和這些營養素的生物相容性一般減少以老化。和與任一營養素, 然而, 過份補充可能導致重大臨床問題, 許多與這些成份各自缺乏狀態是相似。

綜合性抗氧劑像被丁基化的hydroxyanisole (丁基¥基苯甲醚), 被丁基化的hydroxytoluene (BHT), 丙基沒食子酸鹽, 和ethoxyquin 被使用了作為防腐劑在人和動物食物裡許多年, 雖然這些化學製品安全當慢性地哺養在被允許的數額在狗食和貓食裡對表示了懷疑。結果, 自然發生的抗氧劑(維生素E 和C) 是還常用在動物食物中。

  
營養和甲狀腺新陳代謝
營養影響可能有有害作用在甲狀腺新陳代謝。古典例子是發生在個體吃穀物五穀莊稼豐富在碘短少土壤的碘缺乏。鋼和鋅並且是重要礦物在調控的甲狀腺新陳代謝。其它鏈接最近被顯示了在硒缺乏和甲狀腺機能不足之間。穀物五穀莊稼豐富在硒短少土壤將包含相對地硒的低水平。當商業寵物食品製造商補嘗在基礎成份上變化由增加維生素和礦物補充, 它也許難確定最理想水平為許多不同的動物養殖有變化的基因背景和新陳代謝的需要。硒甲狀腺連接有重大臨床相關性, 因為血液, 但不是組織, 甲狀腺激素的水平上升在硒缺乏。因而, 硒短少個體顯示甲狀腺機能不足的臨床標誌能俯視根據甲狀腺激素的血液水平看上去正常。

商業, 自創和未加工的食物飲食
獸醫對待害病的動物讚賞, 營養管理是療法的一重要部份。許多類型優質基本, 生活階段, 和治療商業飲食有時間處理這些需要。例如, 增長的碳水化合物和減少蛋白質含量, 當維護高質量蛋白質, 也許是有利的, 和並且應該有一個正面作用在行為。飲食和行為看上去連接因為某些高度滋補食物也許加重狗的情況以關於行為的問題(統治侵略、活動過度, 和恐懼) 。為過敏動物, 排除飲食與有限或新穎的抗原來源成份被給6-12 個星期評估他們的好處對患者。

自創飲食可能被使用, 或作為一個單一食物來源或並且增加來基本的穀物飲食, 在慣例適當地平衡條件下。所有其它食物補充, 包括款待, 被撤出。成功地被使用了的例子成份, 包括whitefish 、兔子、鹿肉、鴨子、駝鳥、鴯、水牛, 和火雞與土豆、白薯和其它菜被混合(除了蔥和十字花科的菜) 。五穀經常, 至少最初地, 被避免雖然新穎的五穀喜歡quinoa, 高梁, 大麥或胡麻很好通常被容忍了。

商業或自創未加工的食物飲食獲取在大眾化。一原型飲食[ BARF (骨頭和未加工的食物) ] 伊恩・Billinghurst 博士推薦哺養狗60% 未加工的內容豐富的骨頭(雞後面、翼和脖子), 以飲食的剩餘組成由地面菜與絞肉被混合, 並且補充譬如海帶、維生素E 和維生素C. Nutritional 分析在一些商業可利用的未加工的飲食建議未加工的內容豐富的骨頭常用提供40-70% 蛋白質, 並且meat/vegetable 混合物範圍從20-50% 蛋白質。問題出現了關於在這樣高蛋白飲食的潛力影響腎臟作用當連續哺養, 當高蛋白飲食被報告導致腎臟肥大, 並且增加腎臟血流和glomerular 濾清率。當這關心不能附屬對健康狗, 它能充當在狗的一個角色以早先減弱的腎臟作用。當前, 沒有資料支持或反駁這個問題。

維護蹤影礦物適當的比率, 維生素、脂肪酸和其它營養元素是特別重要為有深刻和慢性疾病病人, 當他們新陳代謝的要求增加承受細胞轉交和組織修理。典型的補充有: 維生素礦物混合、抗氧劑(維生素A 、C 、D 、和E 和硒), 消化酵素、釀酒商的酵母、海帶、蜂蜜、外套添加劑、蘋果汁醋、鹽酸(稀少被使用), 酸奶、肝臟、蛋、大蒜, 和大量新鮮的飲用水。

維生素A 和E 被顯示提高免疫作用在小動物, 作為前罐頭有利地影響T 幫手反應, 並且後者為人所知改進多孔和體液免疫。飲食類胡蘿卜素, 特別是葉黃素和β- 胡蘿蔔素, 被報告調整細胞和體液免疫在狗但不是在貓。

  
未加工的食物飲食研究
Antech 診斷最近確定了變化的年齡227 條健康成人狗基本的臨床實驗室參量並且養殖類型被哺養未加工的食物節食至少9 個月。從這個小組, 87 條狗被哺養了古典BARF 飲食, 46 條狗被哺養了Volhard? NDF 飲食, 和殘餘的94 條狗被哺養了其它類型風俗或商業未加工的飲食。

有69 狗養殖代表, 包括233 個純血統的動物, 16 個雜種, 1 被混合的養殖和6 未知的養殖類型。狗從所有養殖小組代表了。大多狗是被閹割的男性(73) 或spayed 女性(85); 並且剩下的人相等地被劃分了在原封男性和女性之間。小組的平均年齡是5.67 ± 3.52 年(卑鄙 ± SD); 並且卑鄙時間哺養了未加工的食物飲食是2.84 ± 2.54 年。資料從這個小組狗與同樣實驗室參量比較被測量在Antech 診斷從75 狗哺養一商業cereal-based kibbled 飲食的健康成人。結果統計比較為未加工和cereal-based 飲食發現他們根本上是同樣有以下著名的例外:

更高的被包裝的細胞容量(血流比容計) 在所有未加工的飲食哺養了小組(51.0 6.6-53.5 5.6 ± % 的 ± 範圍) 對cereal-based kibble (47.6 ± 6.1%) 。
更加高級的血尿素氮(小圓麵包) 在所有未加工的飲食哺養了小組(18.8 6.9-22.0 8.7 ± mg/dL 的 ± 範圍) 對cereal-based kibble (15.5 ± 4.7 mg/dL) 。
更加高級的清液肌氨酸酐在Volhard 未加工的飲食集體僅僅(1.20 ± 0.34 mg/dL) 對cereal-based kibble (1.07 ± 0.28 mg/dL) 。

當一個更加詳細的分析有被完成, 這些結果表明, 狗比狗哺養了未加工的肉(自然食肉動物) 有更高的紅血球和血尿素氮水平被哺養cereal-based 食物(強制雜食動物) 。因而, 正常參考價值為狗哺養了未加工的食物飲食應該大概被校正。
Nutrition and the Immune System
Wholesome nutrition is the key to maintaining a healthy immune system and resistance to disease. Nutritional deficiencies or imbalances as well as exposures to various chemicals, drugs and toxins present an ongoing immunological challenge which can suppress immune function, especially in those animals genetically susceptible to immune dysfunction (immune deficiency, autoimmunity, allergies).

Genetic differences between individuals lead to quantitative variations in dietary requirements to maintain health. Genetic defects also may result in inborn errors of metabolism that affect one or more pathways involving nutrients or their metabolites. While minimal and maximal nutrient requirements have been established for most vitamins and trace mineral elements, optimum amounts for every individual should not be assumed. Examples of important vitamin and mineral requirements in this regard include vitamin C, vitamin E and selenium, vitamin A, copper and vitamin B-12. Similarly, a wide variation occurs in the energy needs of dogs depending on their breed, age, sex, and size.

Nutritional factors that play an important role in immune function include zinc, selenium and vitamin E, vitamin B-6 (pyridoxine), and linoleic acid. Deficiency of these compounds impairs both humoral as well as cell-mediated immunity. The requirement for essential nutrients increases during periods of rapid growth or reproduction and also may increase in geriatric individuals, because immune function and the bioavailability of these nutrients generally wanes with aging. As with any nutrient, however, excessive supplementation can lead to significant clinical problems, many of which are similar to the respective deficiency states of these ingredients.

Synthetic antioxidants like butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), propyl gallate, and ethoxyquin have been used as preservatives in human and animal foods for many years, although the safety of these chemicals when chronically fed at permitted amounts in dog and cat foods has been questioned. As a result, naturally occurring antioxidants (vitamins E and C) are also commonly used in animal foods.

  
Nutrition and Thyroid Metabolism
Nutritional influences can have a deleterious effects on thyroid metabolism. The classical example is the iodine deficiency that occurs in individuals eating cereal grain crops grown on iodine-deficient soil. Iron and zinc also are important minerals in regulating thyroid metabolism. Another link has recently been shown between selenium deficiency and hypothyroidism. Cereal grain crops grown on selenium-deficient soil will contain relatively low levels of selenium. While commercial pet food manufacturers compensate for variations in basal ingredients by adding vitamin and mineral supplements, it may be difficult to determine optimum levels for so many different animal breeds having varying genetic backgrounds and metabolic needs. The selenium-thyroid connection has significant clinical relevance, because blood, but not tissue, levels of thyroid hormones rise in selenium deficiency. Thus, selenium-deficient individuals showing clinical signs of hypothyroidism could be overlooked on the basis that blood levels of thyroid hormones appear normal.

Commercial, Home-Made and Raw Food Diets
Veterinarians treating diseased animals appreciate that nutritional management is an important part of therapy. Many types of premium basic, life-stage, and therapeutic commercial diets are available to address these needs. For example, increasing carbohydrate and reducing protein content, while maintaining high quality protein, may be beneficial, and is also believed to have a positive effect on behavior. Diet and behavior appear to be linked because certain highly nutritious foods may aggravate the condition of dogs with behavioral problems (dominant aggression, hyperactivity, and fear). For allergic animals, elimination diets with restricted or novel antigen source ingredients are given for 6-12 weeks to evaluate their benefit to the patient.

Homemade diets can also be used, either as a sole food source or added to basic cereal diets, provided that the formula is properly balanced. All other food supplements, including treats, are withdrawn. Example ingredients that have been used successfully, include whitefish, rabbit, venison, duck, ostrich, emu, buffalo, and turkey mixed with potato, sweet potato and other vegetables (except onions and cruciferous vegetables). Grains are often avoided, at least initially, although novel grains like quinoa, sorghum, barley or flax usually have been well tolerated.

Commercial or home-made raw food diets have been gaining in popularity as well. One prototype diet [BARF (bones and raw food)] of Dr. Ian Billinghurst recommends feeding a dog 60% raw meaty bones (chicken backs,wings and necks), with the rest of the diet composed of ground vegetables mixed with ground meat, and supplements such as kelp, vitamin E and vitamin C. Nutritional analyses on some commercially available raw diets suggest that the raw meaty bones commonly used provide 40-70% protein, and the meat/vegetable mixtures range from 20-50% protein. The question has arisen about the potential for such high protein diets to affect renal function when fed continuously, as high protein diets are reported to induce renal hypertrophy, and increase renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate. While this concern may not pertain to healthy dogs, it could play a role in dogs with previously compromised renal function. At present, there are no data to support or refute this issue.

Maintaining the appropriate ratio of trace minerals, vitamins, fatty acids and other nutritive elements is especially important for patients with acute and chronic diseases, as their metabolic demands have increased to sustain cell turnover and tissue repair. Typical supplements include: vitamin-mineral mix, antioxidants (vitamins A, C, D, and E and selenium), digestive enzymes, brewer's yeast, kelp, honey, coat additives, apple cider vinegar, hydrochloric acid (used sparingly), yogurt, liver, eggs, garlic, and plenty of fresh potable water.

Vitamin A and E have been shown to enhance immune function in small animals, as the former can beneficially influence T-helper responses, and the latter is known to improve both cellular and humoral immunity. Dietary carotenoids, especially lutein and beta-carotene, have been reported to modulate both cell-mediated and humoral immunity in dogs but not in cats.

  
Raw Food Diet Study
Antech Diagnostics recently determined the basic clinical laboratory parameters of 227 healthy adult dogs of varying ages and breed types being fed raw food diets for at least 9 months. From this group, 87 dogs were fed the classical BARF diet, 46 dogs were fed Volhard掇 NDF diet, and the remaining 94 dogs were fed other types of custom or commercial raw diets.

There were 69 dog breeds represented, including 233 purebreds, 16 crossbreds, 1 mixed breed and 6 of unknown breed type. Dogs from all breed groups were represented. Most of the dogs were neutered males (73) or spayed females (85); and the remainder was divided equally between intact males and females. The mean age of the group was 5.67 ± 3.52 years (mean ± SD); and the mean length of time fed a raw food diet was 2.84 ± 2.54 years. The data from this group of dogs were compared to the same laboratory parameters measured at Antech Diagnostics from 75 healthy adult dogs fed a commercial cereal-based kibbled diet. Statistical comparisons of results for the raw and cereal-based diets found them to be essentially the same with the following notable exceptions:

Higher packed cell volume (hematocrit) in all raw diet fed groups (range of 51.0 ± 6.6–53.5 ± 5.6 %) versus cereal-based kibble (47.6 ± 6.1%).
Higher blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in all raw diet fed groups (range of 18.8 ± 6.9–22.0 ± 8.7 mg/dL) versus cereal-based kibble (15.5 ± 4.7 mg/dL).
Higher serum creatinine in the Volhard raw diet group only (1.20 ± 0.34 mg/dL) versus cereal-based kibble (1.07 ± 0.28 mg/dL).

While a more detailed analysis has yet to be completed, these results indicate that dogs fed raw meats (natural carnivores) have higher red blood cell and blood urea nitrogen levels than dogs fed cereal-based food (obligate omnivores). Thus, the normal reference values for dogs fed raw food diets should probably be revised.

minibabyqq 2006-12-20 03:57

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[color=Magenta][size=5][b]老化過程& 我們怎麼能幫助   [/b][/size][/color]

我們盼望某些變動發生在動物的身體作為動物年齡。這些變動不能是相同在各個動物種類方面。在一些動物(即; 狗玩具養殖) 變化在心臟上是共同, 但是在其它動物(貓), 腎臟也許是第一器官的當中一個顯示老化的標誌。我們能幫助更舊的動物適應這些變化在各種各樣的方式上: 診斷對適當的療程和補充的問題及早, 用途, 修改狗的環境, 和改變我們與我們的老朋友相處融洽的方式用。
改變在營養需要

當狗變老, 他們的新陳代謝改變並且他們的對卡路里的 需要 減少。總之, 他們的維護能量需要減少大約20% 。由於他們的活動通常減少, 他們的能源需求另外10-20% 減少。如果我們哺養更舊的狗我們哺養他們的同樣數額當他們是年輕, 他們將增重。因為身體的新陳代謝改變, 它是共同使身體放下油脂。這個傾向可能對肥胖病並且貢獻在更舊的狗。 肥胖病 是更舊的狗的當中一個主要衛生問題。除卡路里之外, 有更舊的 狗其它營養需要, 包括在纖維的增量和減退在油脂裡。特別是如果一條更舊的狗不吃□如同他如果, 或有某些健康狀況, 補充經常被推薦。

皮膚和頭髮外套變動

和與人, 更舊的狗也許開始顯示灰色頭髮, 特別是在槍口和在眼睛附近。haircoat 也許變得更加稀薄並且更加愚鈍, 然而, 這可能並且是疾病症狀或營養缺乏。 脂肪酸補充 也許幫助恢復一些色澤對外套。如果一條更舊的狗的haircoat 極大改變, 狗應該由獸醫檢查。更舊的狗也許需要經常修飾, 與特別留意被給肛門區域。修飾是一個巨大方式使您花費不少令人愉快的時刻與您的更舊的狗。他將愛注意。

更舊的狗的皮膚也許並且成為稀釋劑, 較少彈性, 和因而更多依於傷害。一些更舊的狗開發 皮膚的 多個良性腫瘤, 一般不被去除除非容易地受損傷。皮膚的癌腫瘤可能並且發生。乾性皮膚可能是一個問題為更舊的狗, 並且再, 脂肪酸補充也許是有利的。

老繭

它是共同使更舊, 大養殖狗開發老繭在他們的手肘。分開這的原因是更舊的狗傾向是較不活躍的和放下更多。特別是如果他們放下在堅硬表面, 老繭可能顯現出。提供狗床, 特別是一張矯形床, 可能幫助防止老繭。

易碎的釘子

正我們看變化在haircoat 上, 我們能也看變化在更舊的狗上釘子。他們也許傾向於變得易碎。必須被保重在截去更舊的狗釘子, 並且他們也許需要經常被截去, 因為更舊的不活潑的狗是較不可能佩帶他們釘牢通過活動。

被減少的流動性


關節炎 是共同的發生在更舊的狗, 特別是大養殖尾隨和有一個傾向有椎間的 (iv) 圓盤疾病譬如 Dachshunds 和Bassets 的養殖。傷害聯接及早並且在他們的生活中的狗有一個傾向開發關節炎當他們變老。和在人, 關節炎在狗也許只導致輕微的僵硬, 或它可能變得致衰弱。狗也許有困難去在臺階上下, 跳入汽車, 或走通過雪。

軟骨素和氨基葡萄糖 依照被發現在如此產品像Drs. Foster 和史密斯聯合關心和Cosequin 可能是有利的。某個抗發炎止痛藥譬如阿斯匹靈和Rimadyl 經常被推薦。(不要給您的貓阿斯匹靈除非由您的獸醫規定。)

和與肌肉在人(如果您不使用他們, 您失去他們), 是不活潑的意志的更舊的狗丟失肌肉大量和定調子。這也許使它難使他們行動, 因此他們搬走, 等, 和一個狠毒週期開始。鍛煉為一條更舊的狗是重要為肌肉, 並且心臟, 消化系統, 和態度的健康。鍛煉慣例可能適應根據狗的能力。游泳和幾短小步行每天也許幫助維護和加強狗的肌肉。

舷梯、被舉起的飼養者, 和矯形床也許幫助減少了流動性或痛苦在運動的狗。

牙齒疾病

牙齒疾病 是我們看在更舊的狗的最共同的變動。研究表示, 由年齡三, 狗的百分之80 陳列膠疾病的標誌。定期牙齒關心包括 toothbrushing, 可能幫助保留牙齒疾病對極小值。未接受適當的牙齒關心的狗能開發重大牙齒疾病當他們變老和也許開發威脅生命的複雜化。一個 牙齒關心節目 應該包括toothbrushing, 規則牙齒核對, 和專業清潔依照必要。

被減少的食道能動性(便秘)

當狗變老, 食物的運動通過他們的消化短文減慢。這可能導致便秘。便秘是共同在也許體驗痛苦當排糞譬如那些以hip 發育異常或 肛門 封墊疾病的狗。不活潑可能對便秘並且貢獻。便秘可能並且是一些嚴肅的疾病情況的標誌, 並且狗體驗便秘應該由獸醫評估。瀉藥或飲食包含增加的纖維也許被規定。這是重要這些狗飲料大量水。

被減少的能力戰鬥疾病

作為狗變老, 免疫系統 不起作用因為有效地和更舊的狗是更加有傾向開發傳染病; 並且傳染在一條更舊的狗比一相似一個通常嚴厲的在一條更加幼小的狗。它重要保持您的更舊的狗當前在接種。

被減少的心臟作用

作為狗的心臟年齡, 它丟失一些效率, 無法抽同樣多血液在指定的時間。心臟的閥門丟失一些他們的彈性和對被減少的抽的效率並且貢獻。最共同的介入的閥門是 二尖瓣, 特別是在小養殖。這些心臟變動被期望, 然而, 更加嚴厲的變動可能發生, 特別是在有較小心臟問題的狗當他們是年輕。診斷測試譬如射線照相(X-射線), 心電圖(EKG), 和 echocardiogram 可能被使用診斷心臟病。各種各樣的療程是可利用疾病取決於型和嚴肅。

肺容量被減少

肺並且丟失他們的彈性在老化過程期間, 並且肺的能力氧化血液也許被減少。更舊的狗也許是有傾向對 呼吸 傳染。

減少在腎臟作用

當動物變老, 腎臟疾病風險增加。這也許歸結於變化在腎臟上或結果從其它器官的官能不良譬如心臟, 如果適當地不起作用, 將減少血流對腎臟。腎臟作用可能被測量通過 對血液和 尿分析的化學 測試。這些測試可能辨認腎臟問題很好在有所有物理疾病症狀之前。腎臟疾病的最頻繁的標誌由所有者首先注意會是在水消耗量和排尿的增量, 但這一般不發生直到大約70% 腎臟作用丟失。

如果腎臟通常不起作用, 各種各樣的療程和麻醉劑飲食和藥量也許需要被改變協助身體在擺脫故障產品。前麻醉劑驗血被推薦辨認所有潛在的腎臟問題在麻醉被執行之前。

被減少的肝功能

雖然 肝臟 有一個難以置信和獨特的方式再生當受傷, 肝臟變老像所有其它器官在身體。它的能力解毒血液和生產許多 酵素 和蛋白質逐漸減少以年齡。有時, 肝臟酵素被測量在化學盤區也許反常地被舉起在一個明顯正常動物。另一方面, 一些動物以肝臟病有肝臟酵素的正常水平流通在他們的血液。這使解釋這些測試非常困難。

由於肝臟 代謝 許多療程和麻醉劑, 這些藥物藥量必須被減少如果肝臟不起作用像它應該。前麻醉劑驗血並且被推薦辨認所有潛在的肝臟問題在麻醉被執行之前。

變化在腺作用上

一些封墊傾向於生產較少 激素 當他們變老, 並且其它封墊也許生產更多。荷爾蒙問題是共同的混亂在許多更舊的狗, 並且傾向開發問題有時連接養殖。金黃獵犬, 例如, 有開發甲狀腺機能不足一種更加巨大的風險 。驗血幫助診斷這些疾病並且大多數是可治療的與療程。

攝護腺擴大

當unneutered 公狗到達8 年紀, 他有顯現出的攝護腺疾病的一次大於80% 機會, 但它很少是癌的。在許多情況下, 攝護腺擴大。 攝護腺擴大, 然而, 可能造成有排尿或排糞的問題。更舊的公狗, 特別是那些不被閹割應該有他們的攝護腺封墊被檢查作為規則體檢一部分。攝護腺疾病風險可能很大地被減少如果狗 被閹割。

變化在乳房封墊上

母狗也許開發一些硬化乳房封墊由於纖維狀組織的濾滲 。 乳腺癌 unspayed 狗是共同, 正共同照原樣在人。乳房癌症是母狗的唯一最共同的腫瘤, 和最共同惡性 並且 一個。更舊的母狗應該有他們的乳房封墊被檢查作為規則體檢一部分。

骨髓由油脂替換

及早, 我們談論了更舊的狗傾向放下更加肥胖。油脂也許並且滲入骨髓。骨髓負責對做紅血球, 運載氧氣、 白細胞 與疾病戰鬥, 並且 小片, 幫助血液凝結。如果骨髓由油脂顯著替換, 貧血症 可能顯現出。這是它建議的原因的當中一個更舊的狗有某些驗血譬如 完全血液計數(CBC) 執行作為他們的每年檢查一部分。

神經系統和行為變動

當動物變老, 神經細胞死和不被替換。在某些情況下, 某些蛋白質可能開始圍攏神經細胞和導致他們發生故障。通信在神經細胞之間也許並且被修改。為一些狗, 變化在神經系統上是足夠嚴厲的改變他們的行為。如果某些標誌是存在, 我們叫這行為變動'認知官能不良。' 根據Pfizer 配藥, Anipryl 製造商 , 藥物對待似犬認知官能不良, 62% 狗變老10 年和更舊的意志經驗至少一些似犬認知官能不良症狀。這些包括混亂或定向障礙症、housetraining 的能力不安定性在晚上, 損失, 被減少的活動程度, 被減少的專心, 和不認可朋友或家庭成員。

更舊的狗有被減少的能力應付重音, 並且這能導致行為變動。 分離憂慮、侵略、噪聲恐懼, 和增加的vocalization 可能顯現出或惡化在更舊的狗。各種各樣的療程與行為修改技術被結合可能幫助解決這些行為問題。

因為更舊的狗不處理重音很好, 得到一隻新小狗當您有顯示老化的標誌的一條更舊的狗不能是最佳的想法。這是usualy 最佳得到一隻新小狗當更舊的狗仍然是機動性(能得到從小狗), 相對地痛苦自由, 不體驗認知官能不良, 和有好聽力和視覺。

增加的敏感性對溫度變化

當狗變老, 他們的能力調控他們的體溫減少。這意味著他們是較不能適應的對溫度變化。能處理冷的溫度的狗當他們是年輕, 不能能對當他們變老。監測環境溫度在您的狗附近, 和做調整將幫助您的更舊的狗是更加舒適的。您可能需要移動他的床離熱記數器較近, 或保留他戶內在熱的天氣期間。

聽力喪失

一些狗將體驗聽力喪失如同他們變老。輕微的聽力喪失是困難評估在狗。經常聽力喪失是嚴厲的在所有者發現問題之前。第一標誌被注意也許看起來像侵略。實際上, 這也許是狗對人的方法是未察覺的, 成為了震驚當接觸, 和本能地起反應。所有者也許並且報告狗不再服從命令(狗不再聽見他們) 。

聽力喪失無法一般被扭轉, 但是一些變化在互作用上與狗可能幫助減少作用。原因的當中一個教狗手勢因為各種命令當他們是年輕, 是, 這些手勢是非常有用的如果狗開發聽力喪失。對光的用途發信號狗(即; 閃動圍場光當您要狗來自外部) 可能是有用的。狗以聽力喪失能仍然感覺振動, 因此拍的手或重踏在地板上也許警告您設法與他通信的狗。

變化在眼睛和視覺損失上

許多狗開發眼睛的情況叫做核 硬化。在這個情況, 眼睛的透鏡看上去多雲, 然而, 狗能通常看相當很好。許多所有者有關他們的狗有 大瀑布 (哪些影響視覺) 當狗真正地有核硬化。大瀑布像青光眼是commmon 在某些養殖更舊的狗, 雖然 ,。所有突然的變化在眼睛的視覺或出現上能發信號緊急狀態; 儘快與您的獸醫聯繫。眼科檢查應該是體檢的一部分在更舊的狗。

總結

更舊的狗能體驗許多變化在他們的身體上的作用。一些狗比其他人也許有發音變動, 並且在一些狗變動也許開始發生在更加年輕的年齡。知道什麼變動期望可能幫助您和您的狗對他們調整當並且如果他們來。有我們能幫助更舊的狗適應這些變動的許多方式。

您將需要嚴密監測您的更舊的狗。不要忽視一個變化在您的狗的活動或行為上作為' 是老年齡。' 許多變動可能並且是一種更加嚴肅的疾病的標誌。如果您是在疑義, 咨詢您的獸醫和是肯定與her/him 談論您有關於您的更舊的狗在他的規則體檢期間的所有關心。
We expect certain changes to occur in an animal's body as the animal ages. These changes may not be the same in each animal species. In some animals (e.g.; toy breeds of dogs) changes in the heart are common, whereas in other animals (cats), the kidneys may be one of the first organs to show signs of aging. We can help older animals to adapt to these changes in a variety of ways: diagnosing problems early, use of appropriate medications and supplements, modifying the dog's environment, and changing the way in which we interact with our older friends.
Change in nutritional needs

As dogs age, their metabolism changes and their need for calories decreases. In general, their maintenance energy requirement decreases by about 20%. Because their activity usually decreases as well, their energy needs are decreased by another 10-20%. If we feed older dogs the same amount we fed them when they were young, they will gain weight. As the body's metabolism changes, it is more common for the body to lay down fat. This tendency can also contribute to obesity in older dogs. Obesity is one of the main health problems of older dogs. In addition to calories, there are other nutritional needs of older dogs, including an increase in fiber and a decrease in fat. Especially if an older dog is not eating as he should, or has certain medical conditions, supplements are often recommended.

Skin and hair coat changes

As with people, older dogs may start to show gray hair, especially on the muzzle and around the eyes. The haircoat may become thinner and duller, however, this can also be a sign of disease or nutritional deficiency. Fatty acid supplements may help restore some of the luster to the coat. If the haircoat of an older dog changes significantly, the dog should be checked by a veterinarian. Older dogs may need to be groomed more often, with special attention given to the anal area. Grooming is a great way for you to spend some enjoyable time with your older dog. He will love the attention.

The skin of the older dog may also become thinner, less elastic, and thus more subject to injury. Some older dogs develop multiple benign tumors of the skin, which are generally not removed unless easily traumatized. Cancerous tumors of the skin can also occur. Dry skin can be a problem for older dogs, and again, fatty acid supplements may be beneficial.

Calluses

It is common for older, large breed dogs to develop calluses on their elbows. Part of the reason for this is the tendency of older dogs to be less active and lay down more. Especially if they lay down on hard surfaces, calluses are likely to develop. Providing a dog bed, especially an orthopedic bed, can help prevent calluses.

Brittle nails

Just as we see changes in the haircoat, we can also see changes in the nails of older dogs. They may tend to become brittle. Care must be taken in clipping the nails of older dogs, and they may need to be clipped more often, since older inactive dogs are less likely to wear their nails down through activity.

Decreased mobility


Arthritis is a common occurrence in older dogs, especially large breed dogs and breeds which have a tendency to have intervertebral (IV) disc disease such as Dachshunds and Bassets. Dogs who injured joints earlier in their life also have a tendency to develop arthritis as they age. As in people, arthritis in dogs may only cause a slight stiffness, or it can become debilitating. Dogs may have difficulty going up and down stairs, jumping into the car, or walking through snow.

Chondroitin and glucosamine as found in such products as Drs. Foster and Smith Joint Care and Cosequin can be beneficial. Some anti-inflammatory pain relievers such as aspirin and Rimadyl are often recommended. (Do NOT give your cat aspirin unless prescribed by your veterinarian.)

As with muscles in people (if you do not use them, you lose them), older dogs who are inactive will lose muscle mass and tone. This may make it more difficult for them to move, so they move less, etc., and a vicious cycle starts. Exercise for an older dog is important for the health of the muscles, as well as the heart, digestive system, and attitude. Exercise routines can be adapted according to the dog's abilities. Swimming and several short walks a day may help maintain and strengthen the dog's muscles.

Ramps, elevated feeders, and orthopedic beds may help a dog who has decreased mobility or pain on movement.

Dental disease

Dental disease is the most common change we see in older dogs. Studies show that even by age three, 80 percent of dogs exhibit signs of gum disease. Routine dental care including toothbrushing, can help keep dental disease to a minimum. Dogs who have not received proper dental care can develop significant dental disease as they age and may develop life-threatening complications. A dental care program should consist of toothbrushing, regular dental checkups, and professional cleaning as needed.

Decreased gastrointestinal motility (constipation)

As dogs age, the movement of food through their digestive tracts slows. This can result in constipation. Constipation is more common in dogs who may experience pain while defecating such as those with hip dysplasia or anal gland disease. Inactivity can also contribute to constipation. Constipation can also be a sign of some serious disease conditions, and a dog experiencing constipation should be evaluated by a veterinarian. Laxatives or diets containing increased fiber may be prescribed. It is important these dogs drink plenty of water.

Decreased ability to fight off disease

As a dog ages, the immune system does not function as effectively and the older dog is more prone to develop infectious diseases; and the infection in an older dog is usually more severe than a similar one in a younger dog. It is important to keep your older dog current on vaccinations.

Decreased heart function

As a dog's heart ages, it loses some efficiency and can not pump as much blood in a given amount of time. The valves of the heart lose some of their elasticity and also contribute to a decreased pumping efficiency. The most common valve involved is the mitral valve, especially in small breeds. Some of these heart changes are expected, however, more severe changes can occur, especially in dogs who had minor heart problems when they were young. Diagnostic tests such as radiographs (x-rays), an electrocardiogram (EKG), and an echocardiogram can be used to diagnose heart disease. Various medications are available depending upon the type and severity of disease.

Lung capacity decreased

Lungs also lose their elasticity during the aging process, and the ability of the lungs to oxygenate the blood may be decreased. Older dogs may be more prone to respiratory infections.

Decrease in kidney function

As animals age, the risk of kidney disease increases. This may be due to changes in the kidney itself or result from the dysfunction of other organs such as the heart, which if not functioning properly, will decrease blood flow to the kidneys. Kidney function can be measured through chemistry tests on the blood and a urinalysis. These tests can identify a kidney problem well before there are any physical signs of disease. The most frequent sign of kidney disease first noted by an owner would be an increase in water consumption and urination, but this generally does not occur until about 70% of the kidney function is lost.

If the kidneys are not functioning normally, the diet and dose of various medications and anesthetics may need to be changed to assist the body in getting rid of the breakdown products. Pre-anesthetic blood tests are recommended to identify any potential kidney problems before anesthesia is administered.

Decreased liver function

Although the liver has an incredible and unique way of regenerating itself when injured, the liver does age just like all other organs in the body. Its ability to detoxify the blood and produce numerous enzymes and proteins gradually decreases with age. Sometimes, the liver enzymes measured in a chemistry panel may be abnormally elevated in an apparently normal animal. On the other hand, some animals with liver disease have normal levels of liver enzymes circulating in their blood. This makes interpretation of these tests very difficult.

Because the liver metabolizes many medications and anesthetics, the dose of these drugs must be decreased if the liver is not functioning as it should. Pre-anesthetic blood tests are also recommended to identify any potential liver problems before anesthesia is administered.

minibabyqq 2006-12-20 03:58

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[size=12px][b][size=5][color=magenta]狗和貓看見什麼? What Do Dogs and Cats See?[/color][/size][/b] [table=98%][tr][td=1,1,47%][align=center][img=152,240]http://www.veterinaryvision.com/dog.jpg[/img][/align][/td][td=1,1,53%][size=6][/size]獸醫眼科醫生經常被問, "多麼恰當做動物看見?" 視覺作用介入許多因素的組合, 有: 視野、深度知覺(能力判斷距離), 行動的敏銳(聚焦的能力), 悟性, 和顏色分化。所有這些作用必須由腦子然後集成導致有用的視覺。雖然我們無法請求我們的寵物讀眼睛圖, 通過比較研究, 它是可能做一些教育的假定關於他們的視覺。[/td][/tr][/table][table=98%][tr][td][/td][/tr][tr][td]眼睛的位置在頭之內確定程度周邊視覺並且同時看與兩隻眼睛的相當數量視野。這雙目視覺是必要的為距離的評斷。狗有被安置在頭的邊的眼睛, 造成240 度的視野比較200 度的人的領域。中央, 雙眼視野在狗和貓是近似一半那由人擁有。[/td][/tr][/table][table=98%][tr][td=1,1,71%][/td][td=1,1,29%][/td][/tr][tr][td=1,1,71%]狗和貓的眼睛有許多修改典型地看在演變當夜間獵人的動物中。學生起作用作為開口為照相機, 可能膨脹為最大的輕的奪取的能力在狗和貓。另外, 有反射性層數在視網膜之下稱用於增強視覺在昏暗的光的tapetum 。tapetum 結果的"鏡子" 作用在"眼睛亮光" 觀察了動物看入汽車的車燈。當昏暗的輕的視覺由tapetum 提高, 驅散被反射的光也許導致被減少的敏銳。[/td][td=1,1,29%][img=220,261]http://www.veterinaryvision.com/cat.jpg[/img][/td][/tr][/table][table=98%][tr][td=1,1,50%][/td][/tr][tr][td=1,1,50%]雖然它共同地被相信狗和貓看見只在黑和白色, 最近證據建議, 動物也許有某一程度有用的顏色視覺。顏色的悟性由錐體光感受器出現確定在視網膜之內。這些錐體細胞起作用在明亮的輕的情況和包括大約20% 光感受器在狗的中央視網膜。在人, 中央視網膜(太陽黑子) 是100% 錐體。關於行為的測試在狗建議, 他們能區別紅色和藍色顏色但經常混淆綠色和紅色。 [table=98%][tr][td=1,1,50%][align=center][img=167,115]http://www.veterinaryvision.com/public_forum/mccolor.jpg[/img][/align][align=center]人的視覺以充分的顏色範圍可能由於專業視網膜包括錐體光感受器和太陽黑子。[/align][/td][td=1,1,50%][align=center]狗和貓有視覺以一個非常有限的顏色光譜。紅色和藍色可能是卓越的但紅色和綠色看起來。[/align][align=center][img=167,115]http://www.veterinaryvision.com/public_forum/graymc.gif[/img][/align][align=center]動物依靠對比和運動辨認對象。這類型正常視覺被恢復跟隨大瀑布手術以替換透鏡的安放。[/align][/td][/tr][tr][td=1,1,50%][align=center][img=167,115]http://www.veterinaryvision.com/public_forum/mcfocus.gif[/img][/align][align=center]在大瀑布的撤除以後沒有替換透鏡安放, 視覺被改進但模糊。
[/align][/td][td=1,1,50%][align=center][img=167,115]http://www.veterinaryvision.com/public_forum/mcblurry.gif[/img][/align][align=center]視覺通過發育未全的大瀑布是有霧的以小的細節被區別。[/align][/td][/tr][/table][/td][/tr][/table][table=98%][tr][td=1,1,50%][/td][/tr][tr][td=1,1,50%]敏銳是能力聚焦以便二個對象出現作為分明個體。這是被測量在人使用眼睛圖的價值。在動物中(和在嬰兒) 這可能被測量使用retinoscopy 。視敏度在正常狗估計是20-40% 人。這意味著, 在20 英尺, 狗能區別人能看在90 英尺的對象。敏銳是眼睛(角膜、含水幽默, 透鏡, 和玻璃的) 結構的清晰的作用並且聯合的折射力量清楚地集中圖像於視網膜。可能影響眼睛的清晰的常見病的當中一個是大瀑布的形成在透鏡之內。大瀑布在狗被繼承和經常也許影響狗在任一年齡。當透鏡變得進步地不透明, 動物的視覺惡化以便只輕和黑暗的悟性存在。驚奇, 動物起作用相對地很好在熟悉的周圍, 以嚴厲視覺損傷。這說明狗和貓的能力沉重取決於他們的其它感覺, 即氣味和聽力。 [align=center][img=240,172]http://www.veterinaryvision.com/eyechart.jpg[/img][/align][/td][/tr][/table][table=98%][tr][td=1,1,47%][align=center][img=152,240]http://www.veterinaryvision.com/dog.jpg[/img][/align][/td][td=1,1,53%]Veterinary ophthalmologists are often asked, "How well do animals see?" Visual function involves a combination of many factors, including: the field of view, depth perception (ability to judge distances), acuity (focusing ability), perception of motion, and color differentiation. All of these functions must then be integrated by the brain to produce useful vision. Although we are unable to ask our pets to read an eye chart, through comparative studies, it is possible to make some educated assumptions about their vision.[/td][/tr][/table][table=98%][tr][td][/td][/tr][tr][td]The position of the eyes within the head determines the degree of peripheral vision as well as the amount of the visual field that is seen simultaneously with both eyes. This binocular vision is necessary for judgment of distances. Dogs have eyes which are placed on the sides of the head, resulting in a visual field of 240 degrees compared with the human field of 200 degrees. The central, binocular field of vision in dogs and cats is approximately half that possessed by humans.[/td][/tr][/table][table=98%][tr][td=1,1,71%][/td][td=1,1,29%][/td][/tr][tr][td=1,1,71%]The eyes of dogs and cats have many of the modifications typically seen in animals which evolved as nighttime hunters. The pupil functions much as the aperture for a camera and can dilate for maximal light capturing ability in dogs and cats. In addition, there is a reflective layer under the retina called the tapetum which serves to intensify vision in dim light. The "mirror" effect of the tapetum results in the "eye shine" observed when an animal looks into a car's headlights. While dim light vision is enhanced by the tapetum, scattering of the reflected light may result in reduced acuity.[/td][td=1,1,29%][img=220,261]http://www.veterinaryvision.com/cat.jpg[/img][/td][/tr][/table][table=98%][tr][td=1,1,50%][/td][/tr][tr][td=1,1,50%]Although it is commonly believed that dogs and cats see only in black and white, recent evidence suggests that animals may have some degree of useful color vision. The perception of color is determined by the presence of cone photoreceptors within the retina. These cone cells function in bright light conditions and comprise approximately 20% of the photoreceptors in the central retina of the dog. In humans, the central retina (macula) is 100% cones. Behavioral tests in dogs suggest that they can distinguish red and blue colors but often confuse green and red. [table=98%][tr][td=1,1,50%][align=center][img=167,115]http://www.veterinaryvision.com/public_forum/mccolor.jpg[/img][/align][align=center]Human vision with full color range possible because of specialized retina including cone photoreceptors and macula.[/align][/td][td=1,1,50%][align=center]Dogs and cats have vision with a very limited color spectrum. Red and blue can be distinguished but red and green appear similar.[/align][align=center][img=167,115]http://www.veterinaryvision.com/public_forum/graymc.gif[/img][/align][align=center]Animals rely on contrast and movement to identify objects. This type of normal vision is restored following cataract surgery with implantation of a replacement lens.[/align][/td][/tr][tr][td=1,1,50%][align=center][img=167,115]http://www.veterinaryvision.com/public_forum/mcfocus.gif[/img][/align][align=center]Following removal of a cataract without replacement lens implantation, vision is improved but still blurry.
[/align][/td][td=1,1,50%][align=center][img=167,115]http://www.veterinaryvision.com/public_forum/mcblurry.gif[/img][/align][align=center]Vision through an immature cataract is foggy with little detail distinguished.[/align][/td][/tr][/table][/td][/tr][/table][table=98%][tr][td=1,1,50%][/td][/tr][tr][td=1,1,50%]Acuity is the ability to focus so that two objects appear as distinct entities. This is the value that is measured in people using an eye chart. In animals (and in infants) this can be measured using retinoscopy. Visual acuity in normal dogs has been estimated to be 20-40% that of humans. This means that, at 20 feet, a dog can distinguish an object that a human could see at 90 feet. Acuity is a function of the clarity of the structures of the eye (cornea, aqueous humor, lens, and vitreous) as well as the combined refractive powers to focus the image clearly on the retina. One of the most common diseases which can affect the clarity of the eye is formation of a cataract within the lens. Cataracts in dogs are most often inherited and may affect dogs at any age. As the lens becomes progressively opaque, an animal's vision deteriorates so that only light and dark perception exists. Surprisingly, animals function relatively well in familiar surroundings, even with severe vision impairment. This illustrates the ability of dogs and cats to depend heavily on their other senses, namely smell and hearing. [align=center][img=240,172]http://www.veterinaryvision.com/eyechart.jpg[/img][/align][/td][/tr][/table][/size]
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minibabyqq 2006-12-20 04:04

轉貼自4682

[size=12px][b][size=5][color=magenta]BARF 飲食[/color][/size][/b]

BARF 飲食。傳達到對成份具體...


肉和菜起源
Billinghurst.s BARF 博士飲食肉起源獲得從USDA 被調控的和被檢查的設施和從是活在屠殺之前的所有動物。蔬菜和水果在Billinghurst.s BARF 博士飲食是時間敏感成份, 必須被處理在高峰質量保證, 他們的對飲食的營養貢獻被維護。這些成份源頭和結合他們與我們的蛋白質要求嚴密的管理和檢查控制在幾步期間在我們的生產過程中。  

BARF 世界, 知道如果最新鮮的成份及時地不被處理他們的enzymatic 好處將丟失。他們從最美好的質量成份開始因此和並且仿效是時間敏感達到他們國際水平的飲食的生產做法。有許多其它BARF 飲食在市場今天列出各種各樣蛋白質, 菜並且果子成份和許多人集中只於飲食的成份方面。它是重要的, 所有barfers 瞭解適當的時間關於菜的介紹和果子在製造過程期間對飲食的正直至關重要整體上。

當您購買飲食以認同真正BARF 封印您能是確定這!

骨頭

為成千上萬幾年, 狗清掃了其它動物的身體遺骸的。主要骨頭。那能力依然是。所有現代狗容易和快樂滑車骨頭。狗的整體系統被設計為和實際上需要骨頭適當地起作用。骨頭是活組織組成由活細胞。由於骨頭是活組織, 像其他身體部位, 他們是各種各樣的營養素的一個複雜來源。骨頭包含被埋置在蛋白質裡的礦物。他們並且包含油脂。如果骨頭是從油脂將是非常高的在根本脂肪酸的雞或豬肉, 那麼。與油脂一起是肥胖可溶解維生素。多數骨頭的中央零件包含是血液的高度滋補混合形成元素的骨髓, 包括鋼。未加工的骨頭並且提供自然antioxidant/anti 變老的因素包括酵素。

骨頭是礦物自然的倉庫為您的狗。如果肉加來骨頭, 那麼氨基甲硫基丁酸和大多B 維生素被供應。小狗和成人狗很少哺養了骨頭如果曾經遭受消化不良或腹瀉。他們最小地生產固體進攻凳子的smallish 數量。它是高度可能的, 骨頭充當一個相似的角色對纖維, 即, 變大塊的角色在食物之外, 去除毒素和因此促進一般腸健康。骨頭吃狗長期是居住的健康狗。他們似乎免於特別老年齡退化疾病。

肉 許多人假設, 狗的自然飲食是肉唯一飲食。這不幸地是不真實的雖然肉唯一飲食是高度不自然和失衡的。肉應該構成唯一整體飲食的部分, 應該包括骨頭、水果和蔬菜。例如, 肌肉肉由野生狗吃構成包括各種各樣的其它食物飲食的小部分, 包括骨頭。

什麼營養素是在肉裡?

是 它的主要角色在營養方面的肉類供應蛋白質。它並且供應變換量油脂、水、和一些維生素和礦物。由於它供應油脂和蛋白質, 它並且提供能量。肉是頭等蛋白質。那是它包含所有基本氨基酸必要為所有年齡狗, 包括增長的狗, 懷孕狗, 母狗餵養小狗和當然沒有做如此狗。  

肉類供應能量

沒有碳水化合物在肉裡。那是沒有澱粉或糖或纖維。當脂肪含量上升, 水下落的百分比和因此做蛋白質。當肉上升的脂肪含量因此做能量它可能提供給您的狗。油脂用不同的類型肉變化在根本脂肪酸的水平當前。雞和豬肉有最高的水平當羊羔和牛肉是兩個降低。羊羔比牛肉通常包含更加根本的脂肪酸, 但只因為它有更加肥胖。

肉類供應一些礦物

未加工的肉是降低在鈉裡和高在鉀裡。那是好消息為狗以心臟問題。肉與最低的鈉是牛肉, 用豬肉並且是相當降低。肉與最高的鉀是豬肉, 用雞有最低的鉀水平。這做豬肉一好所有圓的肉為心臟患者。牛肉、羊羔、雞和豬肉是所有非常降低在鈣裡和適度地降低在鎂裡。這意味著他們是偉大的食物為狗有傾向對膀胱石頭。但是, 這缺乏礦物要求骨頭材料在您的狗的飲食。牛肉和羊羔肉是相對地好的擁有鋅, 做他們好食物為狗以鋅缺乏。雞有低鋅水平用豬肉包含更多比雞但不是儘量羊羔和牛肉。的肉, 牛肉是鋼的最佳的來源。

腸肚雜碎

在狂放, 他們捕食的狗吃胃內容和器官肉從動物。實際上, 內臟構成野生狗的飲食的重要部分。現代狗有相似的要求。狗消耗這些食物作為易察覺的飲食一部分有優越健康對不吃他們的狗。雖然器官肉是可貴的狗食, 他們不必需在巨大的數額。他們是許多根本營養素的一個被集中的來源和是特別可貴的在成長、再生產和重音期間的時期作為被集中的營養素的來源。

肝臟

在這一個產品是重要營養的一個浩大的範圍。肝臟是維生素A 的被集中的來源, 應該經常被哺養少量。它並且包含維生素E 、D, 和K 在大量。肝臟是礦物鋅、錳、硒和鋼的一個優秀來源。它並且包含所有B 維生素, 特殊B2 、B3 、B5 、生物素、folacin 、B12 、膽鹼, 和肌醇。它包含B1 在充分或少量和是維生素C. Liver 的一個好來源提供優良品質蛋白質和根本脂肪酸的來源, Ω3 和Ω6 類型。這是意想不到食物為您的狗!

腎臟

不是不同於肝臟, 腎臟供應優良品質蛋白質, 根本脂肪酸並且許多維生素包括所有肥胖可溶解維生素A 、D 、E 和K. Kidneys 是鋼的一個富有的來源和所有B 維生素。他們並且有鋅的好水平。

心臟

像肝臟和腎臟, 心臟當狗食是一個優秀蛋白質來源、B 維生素和鋼。他們包含一些根本脂肪酸並且小的維生素A. Heart 包含是重要食物... 為心臟牛磺酸的看得出的水平!

未漂白的綠色肚

綠色肚是可食的襯裡和母牛或胃的其它反芻動物的第一或第二分裂的伴隨內容。肚子肚來自大第一個胃分裂並且蜂窩肚來自第二分裂。狂放的canids 和家養的狗受益於吃肚當它包含生存營養素非常不同的外形包括酵素、Ω3 和6 脂肪酸、probiotics, 和phytonutrients 。這長期被引述了作為是"最很好自然食物" 。



狗實際上吃了菜他們的演變的整期間, 並且那是久時光! , 菜, 特殊綠色葉茂盛菜應該構成家養的狗的飲食的部分。狗需要菜因為他們包含許多重要健康促進營養素。您的狗獲得從未加工的菜的纖維包括可溶解和不能溶解的纖維。菜供應許多其它營養素。許多那些營養素是那□被發現短缺在現代狗的"文明的" 飲食。這包括難獲得Ω3 根本脂肪酸, 大多狗的維生素需要, 酵素大量和各種各樣的反老化因素, 包括抗氧劑和phytochemicals 。

硬花甘藍
菠菜
芹菜
Bok Choy
紅蘿蔔
辣椒的果實
果子

是, 狗能和吃果子。野生狗- 家養的狗, 他們全都做它! 記住狗是雜食動物。他們能吃幾乎任何東西。果子是主要水。在那以後, 主要營養素在果子裡是可溶解碳水化合物。那是簡單的糖。能量食物。果子包含許多纖維。它並且包含維生素、酵素和抗氧劑。由於果子是整體食物, 它並且包含礦物、少量蛋白質和少量油脂。二營養素提出在多數未加工的果子, 維生素A 裡作為胡蘿蔔素並且維生素C, 做果子可貴的食物為您的狗。酵素當前在未加工的果子裡, 並且使它重要作為您的狗的飲食一部分, 特別如果您的狗是通過中間年齡和顯示退化疾病起點。

它是必要的狗吃果子?

不。所有營養素當前在果子裡可能被獲得從其它來源。但是, 由加果子來飲食, 我們保證各種各樣的食物。這給提供平衡的飲食的最巨大的機會以大量長壽和免疫系統促進營養素。任一果子可能被哺養對狗, 然而熱帶果子是特別可貴的食物因為他們包含許多抗氧劑。科學家發現, 酵素和抗氧劑當前在果子裡, 許多未被辨認, 不保持皮膚和的確整體免於退化和老年齡疾病。

整體蘋果電腦公司

削皮的蘋果是特別高的在非讚成維生素A 胡蘿蔔素和果膠裡。果膠是被顯示施加一定數量的有利作用的卓越的類型纖維。由於它的gel-forming 纖維, 它可能改進小腸肌肉的能力穿廢物通過胃腸道。果膠束縛對和並且消滅毒素在食道。蘋果並且是富有在beta 胡蘿蔔素和維生素C 並且幾B 複雜維生素包括維生素B6 、葉酸和許多鉀。  

整體梨

梨是水溶纖維的一個優秀來源, 包括果膠, 使他們有用在定調子肚腑。新鮮的梨包含是必要的為維護的心跳、肌肉收縮、神經傳輸, 和碳水化合物新陳代謝的鉀。梨並且包含維生素C 。重要抗氧劑, 維生素C 是根本的為幫助防止自由基損傷。

整體葡萄柚

葡萄柚是黃酮類化合物、水溶纖維、鉀、維生素C, 和葉酸的一個好來源。葡萄柚, 像其它柑桔被顯示施加一些抗癌作用在人和動物研究中。葡萄柚果膠被顯示擁有相似的膽固醇降低行動對其它果子果膠。整體果子包含更多果膠比汁液。最近, 葡萄柚被顯示正常化血流比容計水平。詞血流比容計提到紅血球的百分比每血液的容量。低血流比容計水平通常反射貧血症。高的血流比容計水平也許反射嚴厲失水或紅血球的一個增加的數字。葡萄柚種子是知名的作為一個殺真菌劑的代理他們的消耗量殺害許多不同的類型寄生生物和協助身體在生產有利細菌。一種生物活躍自然成份發現了在種子殺害strep, 葡萄球菌、沙門氏菌、e.coli 、假絲酵母、herpes 、流行性感冒、寄生生物、真菌和旅客的腹瀉, 和被使用作為抗生素, 反黴菌, antiprotozoan 和抗病毒。

整體桔子

大家知道, 桔子是維生素C 的一個優秀來源, 但他們有更多營養地提供比這營養素。一個桔子包含folate (葉酸), 鉀, 和硫胺的慷慨的水平, 並且一些鈣和鎂。相等地重要對桔子的營養價值是黃酮類化合物他們的供應, 做桔子可貴的援助在加強免疫系統, 支持的結締組織, 和促進整體身體好。桔子被顯示保護免受癌症, 和與病毒傳染戰鬥。

整蛋

蛋是absolutely 精采營養為您的狗。蛋是整體食物, 和經常把視為有完善的蛋白質。它是那個所有其它蛋白質措施。蛋包含礦物, 包括優秀水平的鈣(主要在卵黃質), 所有維生素除了維生素C 和範圍的高質量飽和的和不飽和的脂肪酸, 營養卵磷脂和整體範圍的酵素和其它長壽因素的充分的恭維總當前在未加工的食物裡。殼包括作為鈣的一個進一步來源。蛋黃是根本食物為一條狗以皮膚問題。他們包含硫磺包含氨基酸、生物素、維生素A 、根本脂肪酸和鋅。

亞麻籽

亞麻被使用了超過10,000 年。種子的油是根本脂肪酸的一個富有的來源。根本油脂, 或根本脂肪酸(EFAs) 是身體無法生產本身的根本營養素。唯一的方式獲得這些營養素是通過飲食。EFAs 是多未飽和的油脂, 被認為"好" 油脂。EFAs 對健康作用細胞膜貢獻, 和是還重要的為eicosanoids 綜合, 幫助在細胞維護根據分鐘對分鐘依據激素像物質的家庭。像其它根本維生素和礦物, EFAs 是必要的為身體好。

亞麻包含bioactive 化合物叫做lignans, 被證明防止癌症。一旦消耗, lignans 被發現在亞麻被細菌行動轉換在冒號成哺乳動物的lignans 。他們然後被散布通過他們的行動被增強的小腸短文和肝臟。在身體, 哺乳動物的lignans 有女性荷爾蒙像和反女性荷爾蒙作用。科學家相信lignans 的作用在女性荷爾蒙新陳代謝, 除他們的抗氧化物產之外, 也許解釋為什麼飲食富有在lignans 上有癌症的更低的發生。證據建議, lignans 也許並且是抗氧劑, 雖然他們的抗氧化活動力量不是清楚的。其它研究表明胡麻lignans 減少膽固醇和防止糖尿病在動物中。到目前為止, 科學家隔絕了至少三個亞麻組分以潛在的保健福利。一是纖維, 可貴為小腸健康。其它二種物質, 阿爾法亞麻酸的酸(類型Ω3 脂肪酸) 並且lignans 的好處, 建議, 這些組分也許是有用的在心臟病的預防和或許在慢性腎臟疾病的治療。

大蒜

大蒜是自然的抗生素。沒有疑義, 大蒜商談一些健康好處。大蒜被發現有有效的抗菌物產, 禁止細菌和真菌成長。大蒜幫助穩定血壓和給一個好堅實助力免疫系統, 保持在各種各樣的排序特殊上部呼吸道傳染的海灣傳染。其中許多是成功歸結於硫磺各種各樣的化合物。大蒜是健康大廈和疾病防止草本。它是富有的在鉀、鋅、維生素A 和C, 和硒裡。它並且包含鈣、錳、銅、維生素B1 和一些鋼。

海帶

海帶包含60 個礦物和元素、21 氨基酸和簡單和複雜碳水化合物, 促進腺健康, 特別是腦下垂體, 腎上腺和甲狀腺。海帶供應碘的一個自然來源和作為抗生素殺害毒菌。

紫花苜蓿

紫花苜蓿幫助身體同化蛋白質、鈣和其它營養素。這個草本是身體清潔劑、傳染戰鬥機和自然防臭劑。這是蹤影礦物的最富有的土地來源和包含維生素A, C, E, K, B 和D. Alfalfa 並且包含生物類黃酮, 和八消化酵素促進食物的適當的吸收。

牛乳氣酒

牛乳氣酒的歷史是世紀年紀。詞"牛乳氣酒" 說起源於意味"好感覺" 的詞"keif" 。牛乳氣酒是像酸奶, 但以文化和重大保健福利更加巨大的品種。不同於酸奶, 典型地包含 只二或三不同細菌, 真實的牛乳氣酒包含不同的微生物的一個更加了不起的範圍, 每個以它自己獨特的貢獻。這是什麼分離牛乳氣酒從所有其它被開化的奶製品。牛乳氣酒由"牛乳氣酒" 五穀的發酵做, 類似周詳花椰菜。五穀包括symbiotically 一起增長微生物的酪蛋白和殖民地。牛乳氣酒可能由已存在五穀只被做。

被開化的牛乳氣酒增加了來Billinghurst 的BARF 博士飲食過程抗菌活動反對各種各樣的gram-positive 和gram-negative 細菌, 幫助消滅破壞性的致病性酵母和內部寄生生物。被開化的牛乳氣酒在Billinghurst 的BARF 博士飲食並且包含初乳一種獨特的萃取物。所有哺乳動物生產初乳, 有時叫做"第一牛奶" 或"foremilk" 。研究表示, 初乳的被集中的形式能阻攔有害的病原生物和援助的作用在一篇健康小腸短文的維護。初乳並且包含其它未指明的免疫因素包括lactoferrin 和lactoperoxidase, 幫助控制病原生物或有害的細菌。這些自然免疫組分可能認可和抵抗共同的細菌的多個種類譬如E. 桿菌、葡萄球菌、鏈球菌、Klebsiella 、腸球菌、帚形菌屬、紡錘狀細菌屬Difficile, 和Cryptosporidium 。

牛乳氣酒認為是酵素的當中一個最富有的來源。它充當在一篇健康消化短文的發展的一個重要角色並且幫助改進免疫系統。牛乳氣酒包含礦物和基本氨基酸、鈣豐盈和鎂。富有在維生素B1 、B12 、鈣、氨基酸、葉酸和維生素K, 這裡是援助其它B 維生素的身體的吸收生物素的一個優秀來源。其它好處包括腸規律性和被減少的乳糖不寬容。證據表示, 乳酸細菌適當的張力在被發酵的奶製品裡可能緩和乳糖不寬容症狀由提供細菌lactase 對肚腑和胃。牛乳氣酒被推薦恢復小腸植物群當恢復從病症或當被對待與抗生素。它消滅不需要的毒素並且汙染物在身體, 像抗氧劑做與自由基。牛乳氣酒享受健康要求的富有的傳統和為人所知在世界為它的預防特徵。

The BARF DIET? Getting down to ingredient specifics ...


Meat and Vegetable Origins
Dr. Billinghurst𠏋 BARF Diet meat origins are procured from USDA regulated and inspected facilities and from all animals that were live prior to slaughter. The vegetables and fruits in Dr. Billinghurst𠏋 BARF DIET are time sensitive ingredients and must be processed at peak quality to ensure that their nutritional contribution to the diet is maintained. Sourcing of these ingredients and combining them with our proteins requires strict management and inspection controls during several steps in our production process.  

BARF World, knows that if the freshest ingredients are not processed in a timely manner their enzymatic benefits will be lost. They therefore begin with the finest quality ingredients and also follow production procedures that are time sensitive to achieve their world-class diets. There are many other BARF diets on the market today listing a variety of protein, vegetable and fruit ingredients and many people focus only on the ingredient aspect of the diet. It is vital that all barfers understand that proper timing with regard to introduction of the vegetables and fruits during the manufacturing process is critical to the integrity of the diet as a whole.

When you purchase diets with the GENUINE BARF seal of approval you can be assured of this!

BONES

For millions of years, dogs have cleaned up the remains of other animal's bodies. Mostly bones. That ability remains. All modern dogs easily and joyfully tackle bones. A dog's whole system is designed for and in fact needs bones to function properly. Bones are living tissue composed of living cells. Because bones are living tissue, just like any other part of the body, they are a complex source of a wide variety of nutrients. Bones contain minerals which are embedded in protein. They also contain fat. If the bone is from chicken or pork, then that fat will be very high in the essential fatty acids. Along with the fat are fat soluble vitamins. The central parts of most bones contains marrow which is a highly nutritious mix of blood forming elements, including iron. Raw bones also provide natural antioxidant/anti-ageing factors including enzymes.

Bones are nature's storehouse of minerals for your dog. If meat is added to bone, then methionine and most of the B vitamins are supplied. Puppies and adult dogs fed bone rarely if ever suffer from indigestion or diarrhea. They produce smallish quantities of solid minimally offensive stools. It is highly probable that bones play a similar role to fiber, that is, a role of bulking out the food, thereby removing toxins and promoting general bowel health. Bone eating dogs are long lived healthy dogs. They seem to be particularly free of the degenerative diseases of old age.

MEAT Many people assume that a dog's natural diet is a meat only diet. Unfortunately this is untrue as a meat only diet is highly unnatural and unbalanced. Meat should form only a part of the over-all diet, which should include bone, fruits and vegetables as well. For example, the muscle meat eaten by wild dogs forms a small part of the diet that consists of a wide variety of other foods, including bone.

What nutrients are in meat?

Meat supplies protein That is its major role in nutrition. It also supplies varying amounts of fat, water, and some vitamins and minerals. Because it supplies fat and protein, it also supplies energy. Meat is first class protein. That is, it contains all the essential amino acids necessary for dogs of all ages, including growing dogs, pregnant dogs, female dogs feeding puppies and of course not-doing-so-much-dogs.  

Meat supplies energy

There are no carbohydrates in meat. That is no starch or sugar or fiber. As the fat content rises, the percentage of water drops and so does the protein. As the fat content of the meat rises so does the energy it can supply to your dog. The fat in different types of meat varies in the levels of essential fatty acids present. Chicken and pork have the highest levels while lamb and beef are both low. Lamb usually contains more essential fatty acids than beef, but only because it has more fat.

Meat supplies some minerals

Raw meat is low in sodium and high in potassium. That is good news for dogs with heart problems. The meat with the lowest sodium is beef, with pork also being fairly low. The meat with the highest potassium is pork, with chicken having the lowest potassium levels. This makes pork a good all round meat for heart patients. Beef, lamb, chicken and pork meat are all very low in calcium and moderately low in magnesium. This means they are great foods for dogs prone to bladder stones. However, this lack of minerals requires bone material in your dog's diet. Beef and lamb meat are relatively well endowed with zinc, making them good foods for dogs with a deficiency of zinc. Chicken has low zinc levels with pork containing more than chicken but not as much as lamb and beef. Of the meats, beef is the best source of iron.

OFFAL

In the wild, dogs eat the stomach content and organ meat from the animals they prey upon. In fact, internal organs form a vital part of the wild dog's diet. Modern dogs have similar requirements. Dogs consuming these foods as part of a sensible diet have superior health to dogs that do not eat them. Although organ meats are valuable dog food, they are not required in huge amounts. They are a concentrated source of many essential nutrients and are particularly valuable during times of growth, reproduction and stress as a source of concentrated nutrients.

Liver

In this one product is a vast range of important nutrition. Liver is the most concentrated source of vitamin A and should be fed in small amounts on a regular basis. It also contains vitamins E, D, and K in substantial quantities. Liver is an excellent source of the minerals zinc, manganese, selenium and iron. It also contains all the B vitamins, particularly B2, B3, B5, biotin, folacin, B12, choline, and inositol. It contains B1 in adequate or smaller amounts and is a good source of vitamin C. Liver provides a source of good quality protein and the essential fatty acids, both the omega-3 and omega-6 type. It's a fantastic food for your dog!

Kidneys

Not unlike liver, kidney supplies good quality protein, essential fatty acids and many vitamins including all the fat soluble vitamins A, D, E and K. Kidneys are a rich source of iron and all the B vitamins. They also have good levels of zinc.

Heart

Like liver and kidneys, heart as dog food is an excellent source of protein, B vitamins and iron. They do contain some essential fatty acids and a little vitamin A. Heart contains appreciable levels of taurine which is important food... for the heart!

Unbleached Green Tripe

Green tripe is the edible lining and accompanying content of a cow or other ruminant's first or second division of the stomach. Paunch tripe comes from the large first stomach division and honeycomb tripe comes from the second division. Both wild canids and domestic dogs benefit from eating tripe as it contains a very diverse profile of living nutrients including enzymes, omega- 3 and 6 fatty acids, probiotics, and phytonutrients. It has long been quoted as being "the finest of natural foods".

VEGETABLES

Dogs have actually eaten vegetables the whole period of their evolution, and that's a long time! As such, vegetables, particularly green leafy vegetables should form part of the domestic dog's diet. Dogs need vegetables because they contain many important health promoting nutrients. The fiber your dog obtains from raw vegetables includes both soluble and insoluble fiber. Vegetables supply many other nutrients. Many of those nutrients are the ones that have been found to be in short supply in the modern dog's "civilized" diet. This includes difficult to obtain omega 3 essential fatty acids, most of a dog's vitamin needs, masses of enzymes and various anti-aging factors, including antioxidants and phytochemicals.

Broccoli
Broccoli is one of the most nutrient dense foods. It is dense in vitamin C, beta carotene, folic acid, calcium and fiber. It is also a good source of chromium. Like other members of the cabbage family, broccoli has demonstrated remarkable anticancer effects. Broccoli contains several important phytochemicals: beta carotene, indoles, and isothiocyanates and over thirty-three cancer preventative compounds. Research suggests that phytochemicals prevent carcinogens from forming, stop carcinogens from getting to target cells and boost enzymes that detoxify carcinogens.

Spinach
Spinach contains twice as much iron as most other greens. Like other chlorophyll and carotene -containing vegetables, it is a rich source of antioxidants. Besides beta-carotene, it also supplies two other carotenes, lutein and zeaxanthin. Spinach has long had a reputation of being very high in nutrients. It is a good source of fiber, calcium, potassium and vitamins A, B6 and K.

Celery
Celery is rich in calcium, potassium, phosphorus, sodium and iron, as well as vitamins A, B, C. The phytochemical 3-n-butyl phthalide, one of the components that gives celery its characteristic smell and taste, is especially potent as an anti-tumor agent. Along with the compound sedanolide, an aromatic ingredient also found in celery, 3-n-butyl phthalide significantly reduces the incidence of tumors in laboratory animals. It is said to decrease nervousness, and is used as an acid neutralizer.

Bok Choy
A cruciferous vegetable like cabbage, bok choy is an excellent source of Beta carotene, vitamin C, thiamine, riboflavin and calcium. It contains significant amounts of nitrogen compounds known as indoles, as well as fiber - both of which appear to lower the risk of various forms of cancer. Bok choy is also a good source of folate (folic acid).

Carrot
The carrot is the king of the vegetables. It is the richest source of pro-vitamin A carotenes among commonly consumed vegetables. But unlike vitamin A, beta carotene and other carotenes in carrots do not cause toxicity. Beta carotene is also a powerful antioxidant. Carrots also contain vitamins B, C, D, E, K, riboflavin, niacin, calcium, potassium, phosphorus, sodium, and iron. Carrots have repeatedly shown to nourish the optic nerve and significantly improve eyesight.


Capsicum
This is an excellent source of many essential nutrients. By weight, red peppers have three times as much vitamin C as citrus fruit. Moreover, red peppers are quite a good source of beta carotene, and they offer a good amount of fiber and vitamin B6. Because capsicum stimulates circulation and enhances blood flow, it is considered food for the circulatory system and as a digestive aid. Red peppers are one of few foods that contain lycopene, a phytochemical that may help prevent various forms of cancer.

FRUIT
Yes, dogs can and do eat fruit. Wild dogs - domestic dogs, they all do it! Remember dogs are omnivores. They can eat almost anything. Fruits are mostly water. After that, the major nutrient in fruit is soluble carbohydrate. That is simple sugars. Energy foods. Fruit contains lots of fiber. It also contains vitamins, enzymes and antioxidants. Because fruit is a whole food, it also contains minerals, small amounts of protein and small amounts of fat. Two nutrients present in most raw fruits, vitamin A as carotene and vitamin C, make fruit a valuable food for your dog. The enzymes present in raw fruit, also make it important as part of your dog's diet, particularly if your dog is past middle age and showing the beginnings of degenerative disease.

Is it essential that dogs eat fruit?
No. All of the nutrients present in fruit can be obtained from other sources. However, by adding fruit to the diet, we ensure a wide variety of foods. This gives the greatest chance of providing a balanced diet with plenty of longevity and immune system promoting nutrients. Any fruit can be fed to dogs, however tropical fruits are a particularly valuable food as they contain lots of antioxidants. Scientists have discovered that the enzymes and antioxidants present in fruit, many of which have not yet been identified, keep the skin and indeed the whole body free of degeneration and old age diseases.

Whole Apple
Unpeeled apples are especially high in non-pro-vitamin A carotenes and pectin. Pectin is a remarkable type of fiber that has been shown to exert a number of beneficial effects. Due to its gel forming fiber, it can improve the intestinal muscle's ability to push waste through the gastrointestinal tract. Pectin also binds to and eliminates toxins in the gut. Apples are also rich in beta carotene and vitamin C as well as several B complex vitamins including vitamin B6, folic acid and lots of potassium.

Whole Pear
Pears are an excellent source of water-soluble fiber, including pectin, which makes them useful in toning the intestines. Fresh pears contain potassium which is necessary for maintaining heartbeat, muscle contraction, nerve transmission, and carbohydrate metabolism. Pears also contain Vitamin C. An important antioxidant, Vitamin C is essential for helping prevent free radical damage.

Whole Grapefruit
Grapefruit is a good source of flavonoids, water soluble fibers, potassium, vitamin C, and folic acid. Grapefruit, like other citrus fruits has been shown to exert some anticancer effects in both human and animal studies. Grapefruit pectin has been shown to possess similar cholesterol lowering action to other fruit pectins. The whole fruit contains more pectin than the juice. Recently, grapefruit has been shown to normalize hematocrit levels. The word hematocrit refers to the percentage of red blood cells per volume of blood. Low hematocrit levels usually reflect anemia. High hematocrit levels may reflect severe dehydration or an increased number of red blood cells. Grapefruit seeds are well known as an anti-fungal agent in that their consumption kills many different types of parasites and assists the body in producing beneficial bacteria. A biologically active natural ingredient found in the seeds kills strep, staph, salmonella, e.coli, candida, herpes, influenza, parasites, fungi and traveler's diarrhea, and is used as an antibiotic, anti fungal, antiprotozoan and antiviral.

Whole Orange
Everyone knows that oranges are an excellent source of vitamin C, but they have more to offer nutritionally than just this nutrient. One orange contains generous levels of folate (folic acid), potassium, and thiamin, as well as some calcium and magnesium. Equally important to the nutritional value of oranges is their supply of flavonoids, making oranges a valuable aid in strengthening the immune system, supporting connective tissues, and promoting overall good health. Oranges have been shown to protect against cancer, and fight viral infections.

WHOLE EGG
Eggs are absolutely brilliant nutrition for your dog. Eggs are a whole food, and often regarded as having the perfect protein. It is the one against which all other proteins are measured. Eggs contain a full compliment of minerals, including excellent levels of calcium (mostly in the yolk), all the vitamins except vitamin C and a range of high quality saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, the nutrient lecithin and the whole range of enzymes and other longevity factors always present in raw foods. The shell is included as a further source of calcium. Egg yolks are an essential food for a dog with skin problems. They contain sulphur containing amino acids, biotin, vitamin A, essential fatty acids and zinc.

FLAX SEED
Flaxseed has been used for more than 10,000 years. The oil of the seed is a rich source of Essential Fatty Acids. Essential Fats, or Essential Fatty Acids (EFAs) are essential nutrients that the body can't produce itself. The only way to obtain these nutrients is through diet. EFAs are polyunsaturated fats, which are considered "good" fats. EFAs contribute to the healthy functioning of cell membranes, and are also critical for the synthesis of eicosanoids, a family of hormone-like substances that help in cell maintenance on a minute-to-minute basis. Just like other essential vitamins and minerals, EFAs are necessary for good health.

Flaxseed contains bioactive compounds called lignans, which have been proven to prevent cancer. Once consumed, lignans found in flaxseed are converted by bacterial action in the colon to mammalian lignans. They are then circulated through the intestinal tract and liver where their action is potentiated. In the body, mammalian lignans have estrogen-like and anti-estrogen effects. Scientists believe the effects of lignans on estrogen metabolism, in addition to their antioxidant properties, may explain why diets rich in lignans have a lower incidence of cancer. Evidence suggests that lignans may also be antioxidants, although the strength of their antioxidant activity is not yet clear. Other studies indicate flax lignans reduce cholesterol and prevent diabetes in animals. So far, scientists have isolated at least three flaxseed components with potential health benefits. The first is fiber, valuable for intestinal health. The benefits of the other two substances, alpha-linolenic acid (a type of omega-3 fatty acid) and lignans, suggests that these components may be helpful in prevention of heart disease and perhaps in treatment of chronic kidney disease.

GARLIC
Garlic is nature's antibiotic. There is no doubt that garlic does confer some health advantages. Garlic has been found to have effective antimicrobial properties, inhibiting the growth of both bacteria and fungi. Garlic helps stabilize blood pressure and gives a good solid boost to the immune system, keeping at bay infections of various sorts particularly upper respiratory tract infections. Much of it's success is due to various compounds of sulphur. Garlic is a health building and disease preventing herb. It is rich in potassium, zinc, vitamins A and C, and selenium. It also contains calcium, manganese, copper, vitamin B1 and some iron.

KELP
Kelp contains over 60 minerals and elements, 21 amino acids and simple and complex carbohydrates, which promotes glandular health, especially the pituitary, adrenal and thyroid glands. Kelp supplies a natural source of iodine and acts as an antibiotic to kill germs.

ALFALFA
Alfalfa helps the body assimilate protein, calcium and other nutrients. This herb is a body cleanser, infection fighter and natural deodorizer. It is the richest land source of trace minerals and contains vitamins A, C, E, K, B and D. Alfalfa also contains bioflavonoids, and eight digestive enzymes to promote proper assimilation of foods.

KEFIR
The history of kefir is centuries old. The word "kefir" is said to have originated from the word "keif" which means" good feeling". Kefir is like yogurt, but with a greater variety of cultures and significant health benefits. Unlike yogurt, which typically contains only two or three different bacteria, true kefir contains a greater range of different microorganisms, each with its own unique contribution. This is what separates kefir from all other cultured milk products. Kefir is made by fermentation of  "kefir" grains, which resemble minute cauliflowers. The grains consist of casein and colonies of microorganisms that are grown together symbiotically. Kefir can only be made from pre-existing grains.

The cultured kefir added to Dr. Billinghurst's BARF DIET™  processes antimicrobial activity against a wide variety of gram positive and gram negative bacteria, helping to eliminate destructive pathogenic yeast and internal parasites. The cultured kefir in Dr. Billinghurst's BARF DIET™ also contains a unique extract of colostrum. All mammals produce colostrum, sometimes called "first milk" or "foremilk".  Research has shown that concentrated forms of colostrum are able to block the effects of harmful pathogens and aid in the maintenance of a healthy intestinal tract. Colostrum also contains other nonspecific immune factors including lactoferrin and lactoperoxidase, which help control pathogens or harmful bacteria. These natural immune components can recognize and resist multiple species of common bacteria such as E. coli, Staphylococci, Streptococci, Klebsiella, Enterococci, Pseudomonas, Clostridium Difficile, and Cryptosporidium.

Kefir is considered to be one of the richest sources of enzymes. It plays a vital role in the development of a healthy digestive tract and helps improve the immune system. Kefir contains minerals and essential amino acids, an abundance of calcium and magnesium. Rich in vitamin B1, B12, calcium, amino acids, folic acid and vitamin K, it is an excellent source of biotin which aids the body's assimilation of other B vitamins. Other benefits include bowel regularity and decreased lactose intolerance. Evidence shows that the appropriate strains of lactic acid bacteria in fermented milk products can alleviate symptoms of lactose intolerance by providing bacterial lactase to the intestine and stomach. Kefir is recommended to restore intestinal flora while recovering from illness or when being treated with antibiotics. It eliminates unwanted toxins and pollutants in the body, just like antioxidants do with free radicals. Kefir enjoys a rich tradition of health claims and is known around the world for its preventative characteristics.

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[size=12px][color=magenta][b][size=5]自然寵物營養: BARF[/size][/b]
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自然寵物營養: BARF (未加工的肉和骨頭飲食)
在香客Petcare 我們推薦一樣自然飲食儘可能為您的伴侶。這實施簡要地解釋BARF 方法哺養(骨頭和未加工的食物) 是或許理想的方法在我們的經驗但不會適合所有寵物或所有者。

狗、食物和歷史
為數以萬計幾年狗漫遊了古老世界的平原、樹林和savannas 。疊板狗或狼居住在每類型氣候和環境在世界上。他們吃了什麼他們能發現用食物來自3 個主要來源: 犧牲者, 清除的項目和吃草。犧牲者是主要herbivores 譬如兔子或綿羊。清除的食物是那尾隨作為他們遇到死了用其它方式的自然擦淨人他們發現左從更大的掠食性動物或動物的屍體。吃草的食物包括果子、堅果和莓果正是季節。他們並且吃其它動物主要herbivores 的糞的重大數量提供額外維生素和友好的 ‘細菌’。
狗尋找在疊板。他們完全地吞食他們的犧牲者: □什麼會依然是動物的屍體。軟的器官或內臟是一去被食道內容, 在許多情況下包含嚼並且部份消化菜材料和小量的穀物, 但唯一一個小比例跟隨。然後肌肉肉其次會被吃與皮膚、骨頭和甚而頭髮完成作為自然牙清洗在膳食以後。
人是生存和狩獵與狗不少40,000 年。犬幫助以狩獵和在回歸得到一些殘羹剩飯包括骨頭, 當然。生活對兩個種類是容易在這個共生關係。
商業飲食
在1950 年食物裡生產商在美國和英國擊中了在賣很多左邊質量差肉、軟骨內臟和穀物想法由他們沒有能掩藏在香腸和餅裡的產品。他們投入了它在罐子裡和稱它狗食。第一次在歷史上, 人們能買食物特別地被做為他們的狗和想法很快風行。隨時間人民簡單地忘記, 他們過去常餵養狗在未加工的骨頭、肉小塊和菜殘羹剩飯 – 最小地被處理被保留他們的營養價值的各種各樣的食物。

今天我們被砲擊用寵物食品做廣告為罐子食物這個品牌, 乾食物另一品牌或嚼那個品牌保留牙在有條有理。有許多品牌選擇從什麼應該您應該為您的伴侶?
如果這食物是一樣偉大的像他們比Jamie s’學校晚餐可以是說為什麼笠頭t 他們給它眾人吃它也許想法為’宇航員例如或滋補嗎? 您會吃它嗎?
如此為什麼我們哺養被處理的食物對我們的狗在詞 便利 但多麼方便它當由於飲食您的寵物開發一堅持發癢, eczema 、牙齒問題和有臭味的呼吸。遺傳性過敏症, colitis 食物過敏一件愚鈍, 油膩或scurfy 外套或腎臟疾病可能是全部以我所見共同在狗被餵養在被處理的食物。  
未加工的食物: 以我所見狗應該吃儘可能的未加工的食物飲食: 未加工的肉, liquidised 未加工的水果和蔬菜和未加工的骨頭。它’s 簡單哺養和它什麼狗演變吃。
這基本規則為未加工哺養:

規則

狗應該被餵養在各種各樣未加工的肉和骨頭如同他們的釘書針飲食。黏附對一類型肉或腸肚雜碎可能剝奪他營養素。
不要哺養豬肉, 避免牛肉如果您尾隨從前有皮膚或腸過敏問題。您能逐漸介紹它在受控情況下當您是確信的他做□好在新飲食。
未加工的雞翼和禽畜脖子或肉相似的裁減可能每週被哺養2-3 次和是理想的為更小的養殖和小狗。
從未給煮熟的骨頭: 他們是有傾向分裂和造成內部問題。未加工的骨頭被嚼和容易地被消化和為狗和未加工的骨髓提供可貴的礦物和維生素的優秀來源。  它是 不太可能 但可能的, 一塊大骨頭成為被困住在肚腑為這個原因避免 ‘剁’ 骨頭以椎骨一個圓的片斷在一個末端。它是然而 非常可能的 如果您不哺養骨頭對乾淨的牙您的伴侶將需要和麻醉劑和把牙被清洗。



數量哺養
這將變化根據相當數量鍛煉, 成長等但是當指南飼料100-150g 每體重10kg 。如果您的寵物獲取在重量(和不是增長的狗) 然後減少少許。雞翼計數作為這個定量一部分。另外您應該至少每個星期兩次哺養骨頭對保留牙乾淨和對供應鈣。這特別重要如果您使用 ‘人’ 剁碎或肉其它裁減。寵物剁碎與剁碎的骨頭譬如我們賣從安培或Forthglade 是鈣的一個優秀來源。

Liquidised 未加工的水果和蔬菜: 為每極少數肉飼料這的2 極少數。您包括多數菜和果子, 能並且增加堅果, 研種子草本和煮熟的豆和一個小的土豆。  如果您笠頭’t 認為您能餵養這然後我們您使用補充寵物加上或的忠告是被冰凍乾燥的veg 酵素和油的斷鏈。這是最佳投入它通過liquidiser 或juicer 因此您的伴侶得到最大好處從veg 和果子。這模仿一條 ‘野生狗’ 會吃與自然犧牲者。* 的食道內容

腸肚雜碎:  飼料新鮮或凍內臟(心臟、肝臟、腎臟和肺) 一星期一兩次變化哪個您給。一個蛋包括殼週刊是一個好蛋白質和鈣來源。

款待: 被冰凍乾燥的肝臟、肉或魚(興旺或燒傷) 乾或新鮮水果但不是葡萄乾。

什麼避免: 不飼料穀物基於的食物譬如餅乾或攪拌器。葡萄乾米是好在小比例。

採取所有菜特別是綠色葉子果子和沙拉項目和安置在liquidiser 。 您能使用一個項目或倍數只是經過一段時間保證品種。混合對粗礪的湯如果需要加少許水。傾吐肉定量直到您食用大致肉對veg 比率1:2 。 您能哺養一兩次一些 每日推薦給veg 和肉作為分開的飯食。

怎麼年輕人? 您能介紹小狗一樣年輕像1 個月對BARF 飲食。少許和經常4 飯食每天是方式開始。唯一片斷的大小是重要和品種。

欺詐: 怎麼您可以彎曲規則:

您能簡要地烹調肉由簡要地油煎在橄欖油裡密封肉或簡要的浸沒在開水裡。肉然而應該總之被服務罕見。
Liquidised veg 意志持續48 個小時在冰箱因此可能準備3 次每星期。如果您無法發現各種各樣的菜或擔心您的伴侶需要補充那麼使用一個的下列: 寵物加號為狗, 斷鏈為狗, Udo’s 寵物精華。這些是可得到從香客或 [url=http://www.naturalpetcare.co.uk/]www.naturalpetcare.co.uk[/url]
烤箱被烘烤的攪拌器可能被使用填好飲食一兩次每週。這應該被避免如果有任一種的麥子或麵筋過敏症的可能性經常顯示作為發癢或慢性腹瀉。
如果您無法發現骨頭從您的屠戶或不希望處理他們然後寵物的安培範圍剁碎包含4% 地面去骨作為鈣和磷的來源。我們會忠告然後嚼幫助乾淨的牙。安培供應是好骨多的肉開始的禽畜脖子
疊加性免費完全食物譬如燒傷。像好不願是但是如果您通常哺養未加工的骨頭和未加工的veg (或寵物加上) 與燒傷這是一合理第二最佳。
食物中毒恐慌: 一些當局有關, 哺養的狗未加工的食物也許導致兩個他們和他們的經理成為傳染與病原生物譬如E. 桿菌。在我們的手裡這未被證明是實際情形。個體哺養在飲食比狗健康的被餵養在商業食物和更能應付偶爾的臭蟲。您應該總雖則當準備食物洗手在處理未加工的肉以後和特別是如果您是下準備食物是被吃的未加工的由人。如果任一名家庭的成員是非常年輕, 老或免役妥協然後尋找忠告從您的狩醫或其它衛生業職員
Natural Pet Nutrition : BARF (Raw Meat and Bone Diets)
At Pilgrims Petcare we recommend as natural a diet as possible for your companions. This hand out explains briefly the BARF method of feeding (Bones and Raw Foods) which is perhaps the ideal method in our experience but will not suit all pets or owners.

Dogs, Food and History
For thousands of years dogs have roamed the plains, woods and savannas of the ancient world. Packs of dogs or wolves live in every type of climate and environment in the world. They ate whatever they could find with food coming from 3 main sources: Prey, Scavenged items and Grazing. Prey is mainly herbivores such as rabbits or sheep. Scavenged food was that which dogs acting as natures cleaners they find left over from larger predators or carcases they come across which have died in other ways. Grazed food includes fruit, nuts and berries in season. They also eat significant quantities of faeces of other animals mainly herbivores which provide extra vitamins and ‘friendly bacteria’.
Dogs hunt in packs. They devour their prey completely: nothing would remain of the carcase. The soft organs or viscera are the first to go followed by gut contents, which in most cases contained chewed and part digested vegetable material and small amount of cereal, but only a small proportion. Then the muscle meat would be eaten next with skin, bones and even hair to finish acting as natural teeth cleaning after a meal.
Man has been living and hunting with dogs for some 40,000 years. The canines helping with the hunt and in return getting some of the leftovers including the bones, of course. Life was easier for both species in this symbiotic relationship.
Commercial diets
In the 1950 food producers in the US and UK hit on the idea of selling the large amounts of left over poor quality meat, gristle viscera and cereal by products which they were not able to hide in sausages and pies. They put it in tins and called it dog food. For the first time in history, people could buy food specially made for their dogs and the idea soon caught on. Over time people have simply forgotten that they used to feed dogs on raw bones, meat scraps and vegetable left-overs – a wide variety of foods which being minimally processed retained their nutritional value.

Today we are bombarded with pet food advertising for this brand of tinned food, the other brand of dried food or that brand of chew to keep teeth in order. There are so many brands to choose from what should you should for your companion?
If this food is as great as they say why don’t they give it to people to eat it might be idea for astronauts for example or more nutritious than Jamie’s school dinners may be? Would you eat it?
So why do we feed processed food to our dogs in a word Convenience but how convenient is it when because of the diet your pet develops a persistent itch, eczema, dental problems and smelly breath. Atopy, colitis food allergy a dull, greasy or scurfy coat or possibly kidney disease are all in my opinion more common in dogs fed on processed foods.  
Raw food: In my opinion dogs should eat as far as possible a raw food diet: Raw meat, liquidised raw fruit and vegetables and raw bones. It’s simple to feed and it what dogs have evolved to eat.
Here are the basic rules for raw feeding:

The Rules

Dogs should be fed on a variety of raw meats and bones as their staple diet. Just sticking to one type of meat or offal can deprive him of nutrients.
Do not feed pork, Avoid beef if you dog has had skin or bowel allergy problems in the past. You can gradually introduce it under controlled conditions when you are confident he is doing OK on the new diet.
Raw chicken wings and poultry necks or similar cuts of meat can be fed 2-3 times weekly and are ideal for smaller breeds and puppies.
Never give COOKED BONES: they are prone to splinter and cause internal problems. Raw bones are easily chewed and digested and provide valuable minerals for dogs and raw bone marrow in and excellent source of vitamins.  It is unlikely but possible that a large piece of bone becoming stuck in the intestines for this reason avoid ‘chop’ bones with a round piece of vertebrae at one end. It is however very likely that if you do not feed bones to clean teeth your companion will need and anaesthetic and to have teeth cleaned.



Quantities to feed
This will vary depending on the amount of exercise, growth etc. but as a guide feed 100-150g per 10kg of body weight. If your pet is gaining in weight (and is not a growing dog) then reduce a little. The chicken wings are counted as part of this ration. In addition you should feed bones at least twice a week to keep teeth clean and to supply calcium. This is particularly important if you use ‘human’ mince or other cuts of meat. Pet minces with minced bone such as we sell from AMP or Forthglade are an excellent source of calcium.

Liquidised Raw fruit and Vegetables: For every handful of meat feed 2 handfuls of this. You can include most vegetables and fruit and can also add nuts, ground up seeds herbs and cooked beans and a little potato.  If you don’t think you can feed this much then we advice you use the supplements Pet Plus or Missing Link which is freeze dried veg enzymes and oils. It is best to put it through a liquidiser or juicer so your companion gets maximum benefit from the veg and fruit. This simulates the ‘gut contents’ a wild dog would eat with natural prey.*

Offal:  Feed fresh or frozen viscera once or twice a week (heart, liver, kidney and lungs) Vary which one you give. An egg including the shell weekly is a good protein and calcium source.

Treats: Freeze dried liver, meat or fish (Thrive or Burns) dried or fresh fruit but not raisins.

What to avoid: Do not feed cereal based foods such as biscuits or mixer. Raisins Rice is OK in small proportions.

Take any vegetables especially green leaves fruit and salad items and place in a liquidiser. You can use just one item or multiple but ensure a variety over a period of time. Blend to a rough broth if necessary adding a little water. Pour onto the meat ration until you have roughly a meat to veg ratio of 1:2. You can feed once or twice daily Some recommend giving veg and meat as separate meals.

How young? You can introduce puppies as young as 1 month to the BARF diet. Little and often 4 meals a day is the way to start off. Only the size of pieces is important and variety.

Cheats: How you may bend the rules:

You can cook meat briefly by frying in olive oil briefly to seal the meat or brief immersion in boiling water. Meat however should in general be served rare.
Liquidised veg will last for up to 48 hours in the fridge so can be prepared just 3 times a week. If you cannot find a wide variety of vegetables or are worried about your companion needing supplements then use one of the following: Pet Plus for Dogs, Missing Link for Dogs, Udo’s Pet Essentials. These are available from Pilgrims or [url=http://www.naturalpetcare.co.uk/]www.naturalpetcare.co.uk[/url]
An oven baked mixer can be used to fill out the diet once or twice weekly. This should be avoided if there is any possibility of wheat or gluten hypersensitivity which often shows as itching or chronic diarrhoea.
If you cannot find bones from your butcher or do not wish to handle them then the AMP range of pet minces contain 4% ground bone as a source of calcium and phosphorus. We would then advice chews to help clean teeth. AMP supply poultry necks which are a good bony meat to start with
An additive free complete food such as Burns. May not be as good but if you regularly feed raw bones and raw veg (or Pet Plus) with Burns it is a reasonable second best.
Food Poisoning Scares: Some authorities are concerned that feeding dogs raw food may cause both them and their handlers to become infected with pathogens such as E. coli. In our hands this has not proved to be the case. The individuals feed on the diet are healthier than dogs fed on commercial foods and more able to cope with the occasional bug. You should always though when preparing foods wash hands after handling raw meats and in particular if you are next preparing food to be eaten raw by people. If any member of the household is very young, old or immuno-compromised then seek advice from your vet or other health professional[/size]
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[size=12px][size=5][color=magenta][b]脂肪酸為過敏& 乾性皮膚在狗[/b][/color][/size][/size]
[size=12px][color=lime][size=5][/size][/color] [/size]
[size=12px][color=lime][size=5][b][color=black]Fatty Acids for Allergies & Dry Skin in Dogs[/color]  [/b][/size][/color]

[size=12px]許多年, 寵物所有者給脂肪酸他們的狗和貓更換一件愚鈍, 乾燥外套到一更加光滑一個。獸醫最近發現脂肪酸充當在皮膚其它區域的重要角色和塗上健康譬如過敏、炎症控制 , 和其它身體器官的作用在狗和貓。
什麼是脂肪酸?

脂肪酸是具體類型多未飽和的油脂。

我們談論脂肪酸的二大類是Ω3 和Ω6 。這些分類根據分子特徵。(您生化buffs 那裡, 檢查正文框在這篇文章的結尾。) 您也許並且聽說Ω9 脂肪酸。Ω9 實際減退Ω3 和Ω6 脂肪酸的集中在血液和皮膚。

寵物需要哪脂肪酸?

他們需要的動物能生產一些脂肪酸, 但不是所有。他們無法生產他們自己的那些脂肪酸, 但必須被獲得通過他們的飲食, 叫做' 根本' 脂肪酸。有趣的是, 什麼是' 根本的' 為動物的一個種類不一定是根本的為另。例如, 脂肪酸, arachidonic 酸是根本的為貓但不是為狗。

在某一疾病適應, 轉換 一脂肪酸到另一個也許短少, 或動物不能能充分地吸收脂肪酸從肚腑的某些酵素。在動物中以這些情況, 一些' 非本質' 脂肪酸實際上變得' 根本, ' 那是要求在飲食, 和在金額上限。脂肪酸缺乏也許並且發生以對肥胖有限的飲食的用途在超重狗。

脂肪酸在食物裡是依於退化。煮過頭可能毀壞脂肪酸。不正當的存貯或最適度一下的相當數量抗氧劑在乾食物裡也許導致酸敗和隨後缺乏在脂肪酸裡。

Ω3 脂肪酸

Ω3 脂肪酸有:

阿爾法亞麻酸的酸(丙氨酸)
Eicosapentaenoic 酸(EPA)
Docosahexaenoic 酸(DHA)
丙氨酸可能被轉換成EPA, 然而, 這轉換不發生在皮膚。EPA 是Ω3 脂肪酸的耕馬和被合併細胞膜。

Ω6 脂肪酸

Ω6 脂肪酸有:

亞麻酸酸(LA)
伽瑪亞麻酸的酸(GLA)
Dihomo 伽瑪亞麻酸的酸(DGLA)
Arachidonic 酸(AA)
LA 可能被轉換成GLA, 但不是在皮膚。但是, DGLA 可能由GLA 被做在皮膚。

LA 重要因為它優選水滲透性在皮膚。AA, 另一方面, 在增加的數額, 是鬧事者在脂肪酸之中。

脂肪酸比率

研究進行確定Ω6 優選的比與應該被消耗的Ω3 脂肪酸。早先, 它被認為, 比率應該是大約15:1 。當前的推薦是為比率10:1 到5:1 。

多數寵物食品包含更多Ω6 脂肪酸比Ω3 。一些寵物食品公司增加Ω3 脂肪酸來他們的食物降低Ω6 比與Ω3 脂肪酸。它重要意識到雖然比率也許是指南, EPA 的實際集中在Ω3 是什麼最重要。

脂肪酸的來源

油脂也許包含脂肪酸, 但在極端變化的數量。例如, 牛肉油脂將有脂肪酸的非常低百分比, 但是, 向日葵油和魚油將有更大的百分比。

根本脂肪酸被發現以不同的數量在許多植物和冷水魚。海洋油是EPA 和DPA 的好來源。其它脂肪酸被發現以更高的數量在某些植物和五穀。向日葵油和紅花油是特別高的在LA 裡。

為動物過敏對魚, Salvia hispanica 植物的 種子 提供Ω3 脂肪酸的一個富有的來源。植物的種子包含他們自己的抗氧劑。 Salvia hispanica 馬產品稱三Tri-Omega 被糧食與藥物管理局最近 批准了 用於馬。

依照被提及早先, 多數寵物食品包含更多Ω6 比Ω3 脂肪酸。它被發現牛和禽畜哺養了脂肪酸將生產肉和蛋更高在Ω3 脂肪酸裡的增加的Ω3 。在將來, 對這些產品的用途在寵物食品裡也許幫助優選Ω6 對Ω3 比率在飲食。

怎麼脂肪酸起作用在炎症

EPA 、DHA, 和DGLA 減退AA 的有害的作用。
AA 和EPA 可能被合併細胞膜。當細胞被損壞, AA 從細胞膜被發布和 由 酵素代謝入增加炎症和瘙癢的物質(發癢) 。EPA 並且被發布當細胞被損壞。它與AA 競爭為同樣新陳代謝的酵素。EPA 導致較不激動物質的生產。DHA 並且導致較不激動物質的生產。如此DHA 和EPA 減少AA 的有害的作用。

DGLA 與AA 並且競爭為酵素。另外, DGLA 導致前列腺素E 1 ( PGE) , 禁止AA 發行從細胞膜的物質發行。

徵兆至於對補充脂肪酸的使用

從那個複雜的描述, 我們希望您能看那補充用EPA 、身體可能容易地轉換成DGLA) 的DHA, 和GLA (我們能減輕炎症。脂肪酸影響一定數量的身體系統和情況, 如下所述。

過敏和自動免疫的情況: 過敏 和自動免疫的情況發生因為 免疫系統 反應過度。某些脂肪酸可能減輕這些疾病可能有在身體的有害的作用。

關節炎: 研究表示, Ω3 脂肪酸, 特別是EPA, 也許是有用的在減少炎症與相關關節炎。

其它激動疾病: 由炎症伴隨譬如ulcerative colitis 的其它 疾病, 激動腸疾病, 和 類風濕病的關節炎 也許反應某些脂肪酸的抗發炎作用。

愚鈍和乾毛髮外套: 是愚鈍, 易碎的, 和烘乾的Haircoats 經常反應補充與根本脂肪酸, 特別是LA 。它並且被發現了在某些情況下seborrhea, 有LA 缺乏在皮膚。在這些情況下, 補充高在LA 裡是有用的。EPA 和GLA 的加法是還有利的因為它會幫助否定AA 發行從細胞被損壞由於這個皮膚情況。

酵母傳染: 脂肪酸被顯示減速Malassezia pachydermatis, 共同的酵母傳染在狗和貓成長, 在實驗室裡。它被認為這些脂肪酸也許充當在這酵母傳染的治療的一個有利角色在皮膚和耳朵在狗和貓。

防止遺傳性過敏症: 一些研究員建議脂肪酸補充也許是有用防止 遺傳性過敏症 (對被吸入的物質的過敏譬如pollens 和模子) 顯現出在幼小動物。理論是, 懷孕遺傳性過敏症的母親有被減少的相當數量PGE 在他們的系統。PGE 是必要的為一個健康免疫系統的發展在出生不滿一月的嬰兒。如果母親在PGE 上是短少, 他們的子孫也許是可能開發會使他們有傾向對遺傳性過敏症的反常免疫系統。因為GLA, 當轉換成DGLA, 導致PGE 發行, 給GLA 一位懷孕女性在最後月懷孕和在哺乳期期間也許增加PGE 和減少子孫顯現出的遺傳性過敏症的發生。

眼睛: 除他們的對顯現出的免疫系統的作用之外, Ω3 脂肪酸是還根本的為視網膜和視覺外皮的適當的發展。

心臟問題: 證據建議Ω3 脂肪酸也許防止某些心臟病問題。心室 心率失常 在狗被防止了並且高血壓被減少了在狗用脂肪酸被補充。動物有傾向對thromboembolisms 也許由脂肪酸有在小片的反凝結的作用 幫助。

癌症: Ω3 脂肪酸被顯示減慢某些癌症 發展 和轉移。Ω6 脂肪酸, 另一方面, 被顯示刺激腫瘤發展。

血漿甘油三酸酯和膽固醇: 魚油被顯示了對甘油三酸酯和膽固醇的減退水平在血液。動物接受retinoid 療法(綜合性維生素A 衍生物) 因為各種皮膚問題也許開發hyperlipidemia 。魚油也許有益於這些患者。

它應該是顯然的, 脂肪酸是必要的為身體的許多系統的正常作用。它是還顯然的, 沒有所有脂肪酸是相等的。由於不同的脂肪酸有不同的作用, 一個脂肪酸補充的選擇需要根據我們設法對待的具體情況。

對脂肪酸補充的來源和用途下面被顯示。

  簡稱 根本為貓 根本為狗 來源 徵兆至於使用
Ω3 巨蟹星座, 心臟病問題, 激動情況, 眼睛發展

阿爾法亞麻酸 丙氨酸 x (?)
x (?)
亞麻籽, 南瓜籽, 大豆油
--
Eicosapentaenoic EPA     海魚油 遺傳性過敏症, 關節炎, 自動免疫的疾病, retinoid 療法, seborrhea, 減退膽固醇
Docosahexaenoic DHA     海魚油 遺傳性過敏症, retinoid 療法
Ω6
亞麻酸 LA x
x
向日葵油, 紅花油, 大豆油, 玉米油, 晚櫻草油 乾性皮膚, 愚鈍的頭髮外套, seborrhea
Arachidonic AA x
     無- 可能使炎症更壞
伽瑪亞麻酸 GLA     晚櫻草油, 琉璃苣油, 黑醋栗菜籽油 遺傳性過敏症, 自動免疫的疾病, seborrhea, 減少遺傳性過敏症的發展在出生不滿一月的嬰兒
Dihomo 伽瑪亞麻酸 DGLA         


選擇一個脂肪酸補充

動物被對待為遺傳性過敏症應該有補充以金額上限EPA 、DHA 、GLA, 和維生素E 。

動物與seborrhea 和其它keratinization 混亂將受益於補充高在LA 裡。鋅、葉酸, 和其它添加劑也許並且是有用的。乾燥, 愚鈍的頭髮外套並且是一個徵兆為補充與LA 。

多未飽和的油脂在脂肪酸補充增加對抗氧劑的需要。脂肪酸補充應該築堡壘於用維生素E 。

有依照被顯示脂肪酸補充許多品牌用維生素和礦物的不同的數量, 在桌如下。您能看, 相當數量各種各樣的脂肪酸和添加劑可觀地變化。如果脂肪酸補充一個品牌不是有利的, 另外一個也許是因為各種各樣的脂肪酸的比率不同從品牌到品牌。

產品 丙氨酸
(鎂)
EPA
(鎂)
DHA
(鎂)
DPA
(鎂)
GLA
(鎂)
LA
(鎂)
AA
(鎂)
Vit.A
(IU)
生物素
(mcg)
Vit.C
(鎂)
Vit.D
(IU)
Vit.E
(IU)

(鎂)
Manufac-
turer 的recom-
被修理的藥量為成人

Drs 。養育
並且史密斯
Vitacaps
  80 55 5 8 45  3000  15  18 1 1 個膠囊每10-25 磅

Drs 。養育
並且史密斯
Vitacaps
超級
力量
  125 90 10 15 75  5000  25  30 2 1 個膠囊每50-70 磅

Drs 。養育
並且史密斯
Vitacaps
液體
25
125
80
25
  150
5
2500
    10
025
7-8 下落每30 磅

Derm 蓋帽
  25
17
  10
392
      75
  1 個膠囊每20 磅

Derm 蓋帽
ES
  75
50
  30
338
      75
  1 個膠囊每50-70 磅

Derm 加蓋液體
  39
26
  13
608
      46
  1 機器語言每20 磅

Dermcaps
ES
液體
  78
52
  26
349
      46
  1 機器語言每60 磅

3V 蓋帽

媒介
  103
68
     1250 年
   125
75
  1-2 個蓋帽為寵物30 磅

3V 蓋帽
媒介

  180
120
     2500
   250
75
  1-2 個蓋帽為寵物30-60 磅

3V 蓋帽

X 大
  250
167
     5000
   500
75
  1-2 個蓋帽為寵物60-90 磅

Drs 。養育
並且史密斯
Vitacoat
為狗
50
     552
  362
5
  62
2.5
  1 tsp (5 機器語言) 每20 磅

Drs 。養育
並且史密斯
Vitacoat
加號為

50
15
15
   552
  362
5
  62
2.5
0.6
1 tsp (5 機器語言) 每20 磅

Drs 。養育
並且史密斯
Vitacoat
為貓
85
     552
5
365
5
  65
2.4
  . tsp (2.5 機器語言) 每10 磅

Linatone
60
     440
  300
   24
0.3
  狗: 1 tsp (5 機器語言) 每20 磅
貓: 1 tsp (5 機器語言) 每8 磅

Linatone

58
     360
  300
   24
1.6
0.5
狗: 1 tsp (5 機器語言) 每20 磅
貓: 1 tsp (5 機器語言) 每8 磅

重要為過敏的治療。


重要為乾性皮膚和seborrhea 的治療。

脂肪酸作為治療計劃一部分

在一些動物, 脂肪酸單獨可能減少瘙癢或炎症對一個可接受的水平。經常, 脂肪酸被使用與其它療法一道。脂肪酸有一個 協同作用的 作用以抗組胺和 glucocorticoids。由使用脂肪酸補充, 我們能減少glucocorticoids 藥量50% 甚至經常消滅他們在動物中以過敏瘙癢。逸事報告建議了, 那個補充與生物素將增加脂肪酸的有效率。

許多獸醫皮膚病學家推薦, 脂肪酸被使用9-12 個星期在結束他們之前不幫助情況。
因為脂肪酸需要被合併細胞膜, 他們通常沒有一個直接作用。經常寵物必須是在一個脂肪酸補充一個月在所有正面結果能看之前。許多獸醫皮膚病學家推薦, 脂肪酸被使用9-12 個星期在考慮中止之前由於缺乏正面結果。多數專家勸告每日兩次對待以脂肪酸補充。一些研究表示, 2-10 計時被推薦的藥量也許是必要控制瘙癢在狗。

Dermatologic 條件在貓譬如miliary 皮炎和嗜伊紅的 肉芽腫 各自地反應很好脂肪酸補充, 有成功率的40% 和66.7% 。成功率在狗以過敏瘙癢看來是較少, 多數學習報告大約20% 。

風險和脂肪酸補充的副作用

有少量脂肪酸補充的副作用。最嚴肅, 但最罕見的複雜化, 是胰腺炎。這是可能導致痛苦, 腹瀉, 嘔吐胰腺, 並且失水的炎症。

因為脂肪酸是多未飽和的油脂, 他們增加 卡路里。如果寵物是在脂肪酸大藥量, 寵物食品降下在卡路里, 並且少量款待, 也許需要被給防止重量獲取。一些寵物也許開發腹瀉從脂肪酸補充。經常, 開始補充在低藥量和逐漸工作由治療藥量決定可能幫助緩和這個問題。它並且被建議, 飲食低在油脂裡也許增加脂肪酸補充的有效率。

由於脂肪酸補充包含很多魚油, 一些寵物開發' 可疑' 呼吸。

脂肪酸補充的長期或高藥量作用未被確定。

結論

脂肪酸證明是重要在皮膚、外套, 和其它身體系統健康。各種各樣的脂肪酸有不同的行動並且補充選擇需要根據作用渴望。為乾性皮膚和愚鈍的頭髮外套, 補充高在LA 裡被推薦。為過敏和炎症, 補充高在EPA, DHA, 和GLA 是最有效的。在遺傳性過敏症的治療和其它過敏, 脂肪酸補充證明是協同作用的以抗組胺和glucocorticoids, 使glucocorticoids 藥量被減少。治療試驗以脂肪酸補充應該持續9-12 個星期。

做最佳的用途脂肪酸補充, 另外的研究需要進行確定優選的劑量、比率、飲食修改、一致療法和長期作用。

脂肪酸生化
脂肪酸二大類是Ω3 和Ω6 。這些分類根據分子特徵- 第一雙鍵的地點從甲醇小組。Ω3 有雙鍵在第三碳和Ω6 在六。

丙氨酸 + 2 碳和一雙鍵 2e EPA

LA + 一雙鍵 2e GLA; GLA + 2 碳 2e DGLA

LA + 2 碳和2 個雙鍵 2e AA

For many years, pet owners have given fatty acids to their dogs and cats to change a dull, dry coat into a more glossy one. More recently veterinarians have found that fatty acids play important roles in other areas of skin and coat health such as allergies, the control of inflammation, and the function of other body organs in dogs and cats.
What are fatty acids?

Fatty acids are specific types of polyunsaturated fats.

The two main classes of fatty acids we will be discussing are the omega-3's and the omega-6's. These classifications are based on molecular characteristics. (For you biochemistry buffs out there, check out the text box at the end of this article.) You may also have heard about omega-9 fatty acids. Omega-9's actually decrease the concentrations of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in the blood and skin.

Which fatty acids do pets need?

Animals can produce some of the fatty acids they need, but not all of them. Those fatty acids which they can not produce themselves, but must be obtained through their diet, are called 'essential' fatty acids. Interestingly, what is 'essential' for one species of animal is not necessarily essential for another. For example, the fatty acid, arachidonic acid is essential for cats but not for dogs.

In some disease conditions, certain enzymes which convert one fatty acid to another may be deficient, or the animal may not be able to adequately absorb fatty acids from the intestine. In animals with these conditions, some of the 'nonessential' fatty acids actually become 'essential,' that is, required in the diet, and in higher amounts. Deficiencies of fatty acids may also occur with the use of fat-restricted diets in overweight dogs.

Fatty acids in foods are subject to degradation. Overcooking can destroy fatty acids. Improper storage or a suboptimal amount of antioxidants in dry food may result in rancidity and a subsequent deficiency in fatty acids.

Omega-3 fatty acids

Omega-3 fatty acids include:

Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)
ALA can be converted into EPA, however, this conversion does not occur in the skin. EPA is the workhorse of the omega-3 fatty acids and is incorporated into the cell membrane.

Omega-6 fatty acids

Omega-6 fatty acids include:

Linoleic acid (LA)
Gamma linolenic acid (GLA)
Dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA)
Arachidonic acid (AA)
LA can be converted into GLA, but not in the skin. However, DGLA can be made from GLA in the skin.

LA is important because it optimizes water permeability in the skin. AA, on the other hand, in increased amounts, is the troublemaker among the fatty acids.

Ratios of fatty acids

Research is being performed to determine the optimal ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids that should be consumed. Previously, it was thought that the ratio should be approximately 15:1. Current recommendations are for ratios of 10:1 to 5:1.

Most pet foods contain far more omega-6 fatty acids than omega-3's. Some pet food companies have added omega-3 fatty acids to their foods to lower the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids. It is important to realize that although the ratios may be a guideline, the actual concentration of EPA in the omega-3's is what is most important.

Sources of fatty acids

Fat may contain fatty acids, but in extremely varying quantities. For example, beef fat will have a very low percentage of fatty acids, whereas, sunflower oil and fish oil will have much larger percentages.

Essential fatty acids are found in different quantities in many plants and cold water fish. Marine oils are good sources of EPA and DPA. The other fatty acids are found in higher quantities in certain plants and grains. Sunflower oil and safflower oil are especially high in LA.

For animals allergic to fish, the seeds of the Salvia hispanica plant provide a rich source of omega-3 fatty acids. The seeds of the plant contain their own antioxidants. A Salvia hispanica equine product called Tri-Omega has recently been approved by the FDA for use in horses.

As mentioned previously, most pet foods contain far more omega-6 than omega-3 fatty acids. It has been found that cattle and poultry fed increased omega-3 fatty acids will produce meat and eggs higher in omega-3 fatty acids. In the future, the use of these products in pet food may help to optimize the omega-6 to omega-3 ratio in the diet.

How fatty acids function in inflammation

EPA, DHA, and DGLA decrease the harmful effects of AA.
Both AA and EPA can be incorporated into cell membranes. When a cell is damaged, AA is released from the cell membrane and is metabolized by enzymes into substances which increase inflammation and pruritus (itching). EPA is also released when a cell is damaged. It competes with AA for the same metabolic enzymes. EPA results in the production of less inflammatory substances. DHA also results in the production of less inflammatory substances. So DHA and EPA decrease the harmful effects of AA.

DGLA also competes with AA for enzymes. In addition, DGLA causes the release of prostaglandin E1 (PGE), a substance which inhibits the release of AA from the cell membrane.

Indications for the use of supplemental fatty acids

From that complicated description, we hope you can see that by supplementing with EPA, DHA, and GLA (which the body can easily convert to DGLA) we can lessen inflammation. Fatty acids affect a number of body systems and conditions, as described below.

Allergies and Autoimmune Conditions: Allergies and autoimmune conditions occur because the immune system over-reacts. Certain fatty acids can lessen the harmful effects these diseases can have on the body.

Arthritis: Research is showing that omega-3 fatty acids, especially EPA, may be helpful in reducing the inflammation associated with arthritis.

Other Inflammatory Diseases: Other diseases which are accompanied by inflammation such as ulcerative colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, and rheumatoid arthritis may respond to the anti-inflammatory effects of certain fatty acids.

Dull and Dry Hair Coats: Haircoats which are dull, brittle, and dry often respond to supplementation with essential fatty acids, especially LA. It has also been found that in some cases of seborrhea, there is a deficiency of LA in the skin. In these cases, supplements high in LA are useful. The addition of EPA and GLA is also beneficial in that it would help negate the release of AA from cells damaged because of this skin condition.

Yeast Infections: Fatty acids have been shown to slow down the growth of Malassezia pachydermatis, a common yeast infection in dogs and cats, in the laboratory. It is thought these fatty acids may play a beneficial role in the treatment of this yeast infection on the skin and ears in dogs and cats.[/size][/size]
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[size=12px][b][size=5][color=magenta]犬針刺醫學[/color][/size][/b]

歷史 中醫 現代西部獸醫針刺
咨詢 針刺是痛苦的嗎? 情況針刺可能幫助的地方

大家聽說這種奇怪的東方治療何處他們投入了針在您的身體。不是大家聽見, 您能並且使用它在動物中。是, 狗、貓和馬是成功地被對待的每天在英國和在世界各地由狩醫被訓練在針刺方面。在英國, 法律闡明, 唯一狩醫被訓練在針刺方面能對待動物與針。由人訓練的acupuncturists 可能對待人, 但不是動物, 驚奇。這獸醫針刺一份簡明的簡歷。如果您會想要更多資訊, 與秘書Onno Weiranga 聯繫MRCVS 在0207 937 8215 為狩醫名單實踐針刺在英國。

歷史- 從石針對Laser 針刺
針刺是一個治療方法為所有種類, 並且人, 被開發在東方在過去3,500 年期間。作為非常實用人民, 他們發現, 他們能刺激癒合在身體之內由刺激某些特別點, "acupoints", 與15cm bian 石針。中國人相信那能量, 或齊(明顯的' Chi ') 流通在身體附近維護所有組織生命力和健康。當這齊流程被阻攔, 疾病茂盛。這些封鎖可能發生, 根據繁體中文哲學通過精神創傷, 傷痕或通過對' 致病性因素的暴露譬如風、潮濕和寒冷。黃鈦、黃色皇帝、戰士、路建造者、"黃鈦Nei Ching 的" 天文學家和作者(' 內科黃色皇帝的經典之作') BC 寫在中國在2,700 附近。

中醫- TCM
他觀察了那:

針刺被開發了在南中國
moxibustion (針或皮膚是激昂) 的地方被開發了在中國北部
草藥在西中國
按摩和acupressure 技術在中國中部。
這些全部被帶來了在他的王朝期間作為'中醫' 。據說這古老時間的醫生由多少個健康人支付了他們有在他們的書。這似乎是能幫助我們的現代醫學的一非常好想法, 或許那個!

動物針刺是幾乎一樣老的像人的針刺。馬當時難以置信地重要。他們的主要角色是如同戰爭機器幫助feuding 軍隊與和動員資源戰鬥。馬並且被使用了在農業在更加富裕的農場。有馬acupuncturist 一樣重要然後像皇家軍隊工程師今天; 沒有運輸, 沒有戰爭!

只在最近30 年期間注意了貓和狗的針刺治療。在70 年代, 國際獸醫針刺社會被發射了在美國。實習者全世界發芽了應付所有類型種類。最後三十年看了巨型的景氣在小動物(寵物) 並且馬針刺大眾化全世界。有現在實習者在幾乎每個國家在行星使用基本的needling 的技術對老練laser 小玩意兒刺激acupoints 。寵物和馬現在在世界各地受益於這美妙的中國醫治藝術。

現代西部獸醫針刺
現代西部醫學得出了結論, 在最後幾個世紀, 相似與那些由他們的中方體會2,000 年前。他們的調查技術稱Science 。從解剖和生理研究醫生解決了怎麼血流, 怎麼免疫系統運作並且怎麼神經系統控制它全部。那裡中醫理論認為您有能量流程封鎖, 現代醫學能描述這作為粗劣的血液循環導致fibrositis 如果在肌肉、咽喉痛如果在心臟和衝程如果在腦子。西部醫學使用藥物與中國人會用針和草本的這些作用交戰。Needling 仔細地選上的acupoints 被顯示了, 科學地, 對發行嗎啡像物質叫做' endorphins 的並且改變方式腦子和神經系統認可疾病區域。它是好像針刺有一個再教育的作用在身體非常處理被傷害肢體或害病的器官。如此, 醒免疫系統, 循環系統和聚焦這新活動通過仔細地重覆的needling 似乎是針刺的物理作用。它必須說, 中醫方法可能經常運作更好比高技術科學方法! 這是特別真實的當應付耐久疾病。

在英國現在, 有許多狩醫被訓練在獸醫針刺方面。在他們之間他們對待鼠、鳥、馬、大象、狗、小馬、豬、貓和兔子。多數是在規則實踐, 但有特殊利益在針刺方面。幾乎每個縣在土地有至少興趣包括針刺的一位狩醫。

咨詢在獸醫針刺方面
您的動物的第一針刺咨詢通常將需要30-60 分鐘採取充分的歷史, 對待動物和談論案件的方面。進一步咨詢通常是大約30 分鐘。Acupoints 由狩醫使用一般被移置從人的針刺。我們有骨骼非常相似與馬、狗和貓和因此點可能相當準確地設置從種類到種類。點可能被發現到處身體, 從小的腳趾對鼻子的要訣。他們是區域富有在神經和血管供應上; 皮膚微小地實際上看不同這些焦點。點被分佈沿著' 能量' 叫的子午線或渠道線。這些能量高速公路有協會以器官和叫, 例如, 膀胱船, 或大腸子午線強調一些他們的用途。當您的狩醫採取了歷史和審查了您的寵物, 他們將選擇需要刺激釋放' 封鎖' 的點。能量封鎖想法可能被重視當解釋作用方式針必須做動物和人民更好。

一些狩醫是難受的以能量的概念。那是好。他們認為血流和取得相等地好結果。acupoint 站點的刺激可能是由插入非常稀薄, 一兩根英寸(2.5cm 在貓和狗到5cm 在馬) 針通過皮膚提示反應。它可能由使用並且做由使用一個強烈的光源, 雷射和壓力, 技術以acupressure 著名。針需要被留下15-20 分鐘, 可能由扭轉柔和地刺激。一旦針是他們是不痛的。我甚而有狗睡著在治療期間! 針仔細地被去除在10 - 20 分鐘會議的結尾。有時針運作他們的出口和是正義藏品由要訣。多數針將鬆懈在皮膚。這是一個好標誌和建議好反應。當我們開始一個動物在針刺路線, 治療頻率將取決於條件, 但每週會議為4 - 6 個星期最初地是典型的。在這時間以後, 進展將被估計並且您將被引導至於怎樣繼續從那裡您的獸醫acupuncturist 。

針刺是痛苦的嗎?
這是我經常被問的問題。我將審閱各種各樣的論據與您這裡讓您看所有論據的邊。第一事說是, 它不可能投入針通過皮膚沒有挑釁某一感覺。它總不是痛苦的, 而是可能有時是一種鋒利的感覺。如果acupuncturist 選擇了非常被阻攔的點, 點的刺激當針得到通過皮膚有時然後是難受的。如此為什麼我們做它如果它有時是痛苦的? 答復: 好處勝過治療的溫和的難受。第一事狩醫被教, 第一事, 所有動物和人的癒療者不學會是' 首先, 做害處' 。

如果針刺真正地極痛苦並且結果是模稜兩可的, 那麼它應該被停止。但對面是真實的。當我們人做出一個決定去acupuncturist, 我們做如此不是為樂趣, 但因為我們有一個問題我們想要固定。動物沒看見它喜歡那。他們和' 我有這真正地疼痛後面看見它或腿和他們現在需要我看這個人和所有是他們想要做的被投入的針在我!' 。這就是為什麼一些寵物是相當迷茫的第一次他們去為治療。如此, 我們的工作作為所有者和狩醫將再保險他們。寵物能是勇敢或相當怯懦的, 像我們。那麼一些將採取針刺在他們的大步, 一些將需要再保證因為他們被驚嚇。有總將是真正地恨任何種類針的那些寵物。在這些情況下, 狩醫能使用photonic 療法或laser 。兩個使用光對待acupoints 以與針, 除了□什麼堅實審閱皮膚相似的方式。下來旁邊是, 使用光的作用有時不是一樣持久像使用針。

其它選擇將使用金小珠植入管在acupoints 。這做在一般麻醉之下和通常做為需要連續刺激即hip 發育異常在更大的狗養殖的情況。三個或四個小珠被安置在組織在hip 聯接附近, 在hip 發育異常情況下, 在acupoints, 維護狗的流動性沒有對每週治療的需要幾年來。

情況針刺可能幫助的地方
給您一些的想法條件在針刺也許幫助的您的寵物, 下面是它幫助了其它動物的類型名單問題。如果您是在任一疑義, 找到您最近的 針刺狩醫。請求他們審查您的動物。他們然後能提您具體建議在什麼會是最佳。

如果您有有您的動物的一個問題, 會想有針刺, 請記得, 首先得到診斷是一個好想法; 或從您的狩醫或從針刺狩醫。這非常重要儘管有需要外科治療的情況, 不僅medical/acupuncture 治療。一旦診斷被做了, 或一個外科條件排除, 那麼這是綠燈連同向前針刺。

似犬情況
Musculoskeletal

瘸未知的起源
Hip 發育異常
Bruising/Sprains
關節炎和風濕性聯接有或沒有骨多的exostoses
後面pain/Wincing 當接觸
Cruciate 韌帶損傷(與針刺一道)
呼吸

慢性支氣管炎
咳嗽無答復對治療

堅持或週期性狗窩咳嗽
尿殖

貧瘠
無節制在母狗
老年齡無節制
膀胱炎
卵巢官能不良
神經系統

癲癇症
消化系統

堅持腹瀉
堅持便秘
History Traditional Chinese Medicine Modern Western Veterinary Acupuncture
Consultation Is Acupuncture painful? Conditions where acupuncture can help

Everyone has heard about this strange Oriental treatment where they put needles in your body. Not everyone has heard that you can also use it in animals. Yes, dogs, cats and horses are being treated successfully every day in the UK and throughout the world by vets trained in Acupuncture. In the UK, the law states that only vets trained in acupuncture can treat animals with needles. Human-trained acupuncturists can treat people, but not animals, surprisingly. Here's a concise resume of Veterinary Acupuncture. If you would like more information, contact the Secretary Onno Weiranga MRCVS on 0207 937 8215 for a list of vets practicing acupuncture in the UK.

History - From Stone Needles to Laser Acupuncture
Acupuncture is a treatment method for all species, as well as humans, developed in the Orient over the last 3,500 years. As very practical peoples, they discovered that they could stimulate healing within the body by stimulating certain special points, "acupoints", with 15cm bian stone needles. The Chinese believe that energy, or Qi (pronounced 'Chi') circulates around the body maintaining the vitality and health of all tissues. When this Qi flow is blocked, disease flourishes. These blockages can occur, according to Traditional Chinese philosophy through trauma, scars or through exposure to 'pathogenic factors' such as wind, damp and cold. Huang Ti, the Yellow Emperor, warrior, road builder, astronomer and author of "Huang Ti Nei Ching" ('Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine') wrote in China around 2,700 BC.

Traditional Chinese Medicine - TCM
He observed that:

acupuncture was developed in southern China
moxibustion (where needles or skin is heated) was developed in northern China
herbal medicine in western China
massage and acupressure techniques in central China.
These were all brought together during his reign as 'Traditional Chinese Medicine'. It is said that doctors of this ancient time were paid by how many healthy people they had on their books. This seems to be a very good idea, perhaps one that could help our modern medicine!

Animal acupuncture is nearly as old as human acupuncture. Horses were incredibly important at the time. Their primary role was as war machines to help the feuding armies fight and mobilise resources. Horses were also used in agriculture on the wealthier farms. To have a horse acupuncturist was as important then as the Royal Army Engineers are today; no transport, no war!

Only during the last 30 years has attention been paid to the acupuncture treatment of cats and dogs. In the 1970s, the International Veterinary Acupuncture Society was launched in United States. Practitioners sprouted up all over the world dealing with all types of species. The last three decades has seen a massive boom in the popularity of small animal (pet) and equine acupuncture all over the world. There are now practitioners in nearly every country on the planet using basic needling techniques to sophisticated laser gadgetry to stimulate acupoints. Pets and horses throughout the world are now benefiting from this wonderful Chinese healing art.

Modern Western Veterinary Acupuncture
Modern Western Medicine has come to conclusions, in the last few centuries, similar to those realised by their Chinese counterparts 2,000 years ago. Their investigation technique is called Science. From anatomical and physiological studies doctors have worked out how blood flows, how the immune system works and how the nervous system controls it all. Where Traditional Chinese Medicine theory says you have blockages of energy flow, modern medicine could describe this as poor blood circulation leading to fibrositis if in the muscles, angina if in the heart and strokes if in the brain. Western medicine uses drugs to combat these effects where the Chinese would use needles and herbs. Needling carefully chosen acupoints has been shown, scientifically, to release morphine-like substances called 'endorphins' and to change the way the brain and the nervous system recognises an area of disease. It is as if acupuncture has a re-educating effect on the body dealing badly with an injured a limb or diseased organ. So, waking up of the immune system, the circulatory system and focussing this new activity through carefully repeated needling seems to be the physical effect of acupuncture. It must be said that the Traditional Chinese Medicine approach can often work better than the high-tech scientific approach! This is especially true when dealing with longstanding disease.

In the UK now, there are dozens of vets trained in veterinary acupuncture. Between them they treat Rats, Birds, Horses, Elephants, Dogs, Ponies, Pigs, Cats and Rabbits. Most are in regular practice, but have a special interest in acupuncture. Almost every county in the land has at least one vet whose interests include acupuncture.

A Consultation in Veterinary Acupuncture
Your animals' first acupuncture consultation will usually take 30-60 minutes to take a full history, treat the animal and discuss aspects of the case. Further consultations are usually about 30 minutes. Acupoints used by the vet are generally transposed from human acupuncture. We have a skeleton very similar to horses, dogs and cats and so points can be located fairly accurately from species to species. Points can be found all over the body, from the little toe to the tip of the nose. They are areas rich in nerve and blood vessel supply; the skin actually looks microscopically different at these foci. Points are distributed along lines of 'energy' called meridians or channels. These energy highways have associations with the organs and are called, for example, the Bladder Vessel, or the Large Intestine Meridian to emphasise some of their uses. When your vet has taken a history and examined your pet, they will select points that need stimulation to free up 'blockage'. The idea of energy blockage can be thought of as a way of explaining the effects the needles have to make animals and people better.

Some vets are uncomfortable with the concept of energy. That's ok. They think of the flow of blood and get equally good results. Stimulation of acupoint sites can be by inserting very thin, one or two inch (2.5cm in cat and dogs to 5cm in horses) needles through the skin to prompt a response. It can also be done by using an intense light source, laser light and by using pressure, a technique known as acupressure. Needles need to be left in for 15-20 minutes and can be stimulated gently by twisting. Once needles are in they are painless. I have even had dogs falling asleep during treatments! Needles are removed carefully at the end of the session of 10 - 20 mins. Sometimes the needles have worked their way out themselves and are just holding on by the very tip. Most needles will loosen in the skin. This is a good sign and suggests good response. When we start an animal on a course of acupuncture, the frequency of treatment will depend on the condition, but weekly sessions for 4 - 6 weeks initially is typical. After this time, progress will be assessed and you will be guided as to how to go on from there by your veterinary acupuncturist.

Is Acupuncture Painful?
This is a question I'm often asked. I'll go through the various arguments with you here to let you see all sides of the argument. The first thing to say is that it is impossible to put a needle through the skin without provoking some sensation. It is not always painful, but can sometimes be a sharp sensation. If the acupuncturist has chosen a point that is very blocked, then sometimes stimulation of the point when the needle gets through the skin is uncomfortable. So why do we do it if it is painful sometimes? Answer: the benefits outweigh the mild discomfort of the treatment. The first thing vets are taught, the first thing that all animal and human healers learn is 'First, do no harm'.

If acupuncture really was excruciating and the results were equivocal, then it should be stopped. But the opposite is true. When we humans make a decision to go to an acupuncturist, we do so not for fun, but because we have a problem that we want fixed. Animals don't see it like that. They see it as 'I have this really sore back or leg and now they take me to see this person and all they want to do is put needles in me!'. This is why some pets are pretty confused the first time they go for treatment. So, our job as owners and vets is to reassure them. Pets can be brave or quite timid, just like us. So some will take acupuncture in their stride, some will need reassurance because they are scared. There will always be those pets who really hate needles of any kind. In these cases, the vet can use photonic therapy or laser. Both use light to treat the acupoints in the same way as needles, except nothing solid goes through the skin. The down side is that sometimes the effect of using light is not as long lasting as using needles.

Another alternative is to use gold bead implants at the acupoints. This is done under general anaesthesia and is usually done for conditions that need continual stimulation e.g. hip dysplasia in larger dog breeds. Three or four beads are placed in the tissue around the hip joint, in the case of hip dysplasia, at the acupoints, to maintain the mobility of the dog without the need for weekly treatments for years.

Conditions where Acupuncture can Help
To give you an idea of some of the conditions in your pets where acupuncture might help, below is a list of the type of problems where it has helped other animals. If you are in any doubt, find your nearest acupuncture vet. Ask them to examine your animal. They will then be able to give you specific advice on what would be best.

If you have a problem with your animal and would like to have acupuncture, please remember that first getting a diagnosis is a good idea; either from your vet or from the acupuncture vet. This is very important as there are conditions that need surgical treatment, not just medical/acupuncture treatment. Once a diagnosis has been made, or a surgical condition has been ruled out, then this is a green light to go ahead with acupuncture.[/size]
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[color=Magenta][size=5][b]花植物補救在動物中[/b][/size][/color]

花補救在動物中: :
homeopathy 這個分支由Dr 愛德華・Bach 開始了, 是還著名的為腸nosodes 。有37 個補救由開花植物的部份被做並且樹與一個由水做了。他們影響動物的情感, 包括人, 他們最初被做。他們運作用一個相似的方式對Homeopathic 補救但不被證明得相似。他們由給使用3 或4 下落動物、狗和馬直接地入嘴或在飲用水裡為傾向於煩惡口味的貓。他們可能被使用在組合和重覆的2-4 次日報直到變動是著名或緊張情況通過了。

搶救補救: 包含岩石羅斯, 櫻桃李子、Clematis 、Bethlehem Impatiens, 和星。這是好的兩個為緊急情況、震動, 和重音。幫助穩定情感。給每分鐘或如此直到震動消退。


Agrimony : 為那些掩藏他們的麻煩從他們自己和其他人, 輕視內在困難和很少負擔其他人有他們。動物不喜歡他所有者爭論。他們能開發醫療課題當被注重的例如腹瀉, 皮膚問題和關節炎。它可能幫助與泌尿無節制

亞斯本 : 這是對對不熟悉的例如煙花參觀的恐懼的一個補救對狩醫。它可能幫助與不喜歡留給單獨的動物。

山毛櫸: 為不寬容。他們不喜歡動物或人從境外他們的家庭或不熟悉的食物。他們能並且是不寬容對極端溫度和昆蟲或pollens 。它幫助如果一隻新寵物由老rejected, 可能幫助以過敏。

夭車菊屬植物: 為那些總嘗試對請其他人和發現它難對他們說沒有, 他們是有用, 安靜和怯懦的。它可能被使用為被推出和為對狗的服從排尿和恐懼的小家畜。

Cerato: 為容易地分散的狗當訓練和慢性barkers 。

櫻桃李子: 為那些恐懼丟失的控制例如貓煩惡是在籃子。它可能幫助以恐懼相關的侵略。

栗子芽 : 為那些多次重覆同樣差錯, 它幫助任一個動物以未來差錯的他的訓練和預防。

苦苣生茯 : 教無條件的愛。它被表明包括那些是統治的動物並且認為他們擁有房子和所有在它裡。他們跟隨所有者在房子附近觀看她的每移動

Clematis : 這幫助補救從藥物、精神創傷, 手術, welping 和等等。它也許幫助為分心和不注意。

螃蟹蘋果電腦公司 : 這是一個優秀洗滌的補救用途為有臭味的外套, 皮炎和治療傳染。

榆木 : 使用當你感覺淹沒或由責任負擔, 例如在狗或貓展示或其它這樣7尬的局面之前。

植物: 為也許由甚而小障礙造成挫折和疑義的感覺。教信心關於能力克服problems.Use 為似乎壓下在朋友或其它壞經驗的損失以後的動物。

金雀花: 為絕望和絕望的感覺。緩慢的補救從慢性疾病。

石南屬植物: 為那些有需要經常談論他們自己和他們的問題, 不喜歡是單獨。教能力敏感地聽對其他人。這顯示作為過份關注得到咆哮或斥責。

冬青屬 : 教你是真實地愛戀的。它使用對待侵略和嫉妒。

忍冬屬植物 : 為那些居住太多從前, 在失去家族, 或在志向從未體會。經常他們再從未期待幸福。用途為急切行為在狗窩逗留或其它分離從家庭。它可能並且是有用的在弱點由失血或病症造成。

Hornbeam: 為感覺, 一個沒有力量得到通過天的正常活動。教精神充滿活力和警報, 一種熱情為生活。如果您的寵物看上去丟失了這然後這是補救嘗試。

Impatiens: 為那些迅速行動和認為, 和不要有耐心為什麼他們看見作為其他人的遲鈍。他們是急燥的緊張的動物經常急切在競爭期間。它可能並且幫助充滿痛苦。

落葉松屬: 為缺乏自信和失敗的意料。經常他們不做企圖成功。教自信和決心承擔challenges.Use 為蜷縮在提議的動物; 或許被濫用了的動物。

Mimulus: 為已知的恐懼: 黑暗、雷、陌生人, 噪聲等。他們能是進取的當壟斷或有時小便。  

芥末 : 為未知的起因消沉, 下降在一個為沒有明顯的原因的突然的幽暗。他們更喜歡孑然和放棄希望。

橡木: 為那些從未放棄, 不管困難。這個補救給這樣的人喜悅在他們的努力, 和教他們時常休假。它是優秀為耐力競爭和重建力量在物理重音以後。

橄欖: 為精神和物理精疲力盡, 由病症或考驗導致。這個補救協助再給力量和生命力在物理精疲力盡或病症以後。並且它援助以洗滌。

杉木: 為那些滿意對他們自己和由於做從未責備自己不更好。為遭受罪狀, 由於其他人的甚而將責備自己的人弄錯。企圖取樂甚而最壞的所有者。

紅色栗子: 害怕為那些他的動物愛; 他站立在窗口直到他的大師返回, 他們是在急切對他們的年輕人。它是有用的為必須分離從他的所有者的動物。

岩石羅斯: 為極端恐懼, 例如當單獨離開在雷期間狗也許毀壞房子。

岩石水: 為那些採取壓抑, 剛性個人政權, 和deny 樂趣。用途為倔強動物。補救可能並且被使用為聯接的僵硬。

Scleranthus : 用途為平衡例如衝程和暈動病損失。

Bethlehem 星: 為精神創傷和震動, 是否從前最近體驗或。教能力從精神創傷恢復和集成他們當前生活。動物也許看上去讓步或丟失對肢體或其它作用的用途。

甜栗子: 為極端悲痛, 感覺, 一個到達了某人的耐力極限。

Vervain : 補救可能鎮定活動過度, 強烈的動物經常咆哮和跳躍。它可能幫助以傾向漫遊或逃脫。

藤: 為那些堅持, 其他人做事他們的方式。他們是強願和困難訓練。
核桃 : 這個補救緩和肢體或一名新所有者的所有轉折例如移動損失。
水紫羅蘭 : 為那些獨來獨往的人, 有時驕傲和無動於衷。他們更喜歡孑然當不適。補救教他們與其他人相處融洽沒有犧牲他們的獨立。許多貓很好適合了這個補救。


白色栗子 : 為急切動物。教平衡的心境和能力建設性地使用某人的想法。
野燕麥: 他們看上去壓下從乏味用途例如在退休以後從競爭即羽毛採或其它破壞性的活動。
野生羅斯: 為辭職和無積極性, 為那些不做努力發現喜悅在他們的生活中。教熱情和能力使生活意味深長。

楊柳: 為怨氣, 通常顯示作為破壞性的行為。教一承擔對自己生活的責任。
Flower Remedies in Animals: :
This branch of homeopathy was started by Dr Edward Bach, who was also famous for the bowel nosodes. There are 37 remedies made from parts of flowering plants and trees with one made from water. They affect the emotions of animals, including humans, for whom they were originally made. They work in a similar way to Homeopathic remedies but are not proved in the same way. They are used by giving 3 or 4 drops to the animal, dogs and horses directly into the mouth or in drinking water for cats who tend to dislike the taste. They can be used in combination and repeated 2-4 times daily until a change is noted or the stressful situation has passed.

Rescue Remedy : Contains Rock Rose, Cherry Plum, Clematis, Impatiens, and Star of Bethlehem. This is good both for emergency situations, shock, and stress. Helps to stabilise the emotions. Give every minute or so until the shock subsides.


Agrimony : For those who hide their troubles from themselves and others, making light of inner difficulties and rarely burdening others with them. The animals do not like his owners arguing. They can develop medical problems when stressed for example diarrhoea, skin problems and arthritis. It can help with urinary incontinence

Aspen : This is a remedy for fear of the unfamiliar for example fireworks visits to the vet. It can help with animals that do not like to be left alone.

Beech: For intolerance. They do not like animals or people from outside their family or unfamiliar foods. They can also be intolerant of extreme temperatures and insects or pollens. It can help if a new pet is rejected by the old and can help with allergies.

Centaury: For those who always try to please others and find it difficult to say no to them, They are subservient, quiet and timid. It can be used for the runt who is being pushed out and for submissive urination and fear of dogs.

Cerato: For the easily distracted dog while training and chronic barkers.

Cherry Plum: For those who fear losing control for example the cat who dislikes being in the basket. It can help with fear related aggression.

Chestnut Bud : For those who repeat the same mistakes over and over again, it helps any animal with his training and prevention of future mistakes.

Chicory : Teaches unconditional love. Animals for whom it is indicated include those who are dominant and think they own the house and all in it. They follow the owner around the house watching her every move

Clematis : This helps recovery from drugs, trauma, surgery, welping and the like. It may help for distraction and inattention.

Crab Apple : This is an excellent cleansing remedy use for smelly coats, dermatitis and to treat infections.

Elm : Used when one feels overwhelmed or over burdened by responsibilities, for example before dog or cat shows or other such trying situations.

Gentian: For feelings of discouragement and doubt which may be caused by even small obstacles. Teaches confidence about the ability to overcome problems.Use for an animal who seems depressed after the loss of a friend or other bad experiences.

Gorse: For feelings of hopelessness and despair. Slow recovery from chronic disease.

Heather: For those who have a need to constantly talk about themselves and their problems, who hate being alone. Teaches the ability to listen sensitively to others. This shows as excessive attention getting barking or yowling.

Holly : Teaches one to be truly loving. It is used to treat aggression and jealousy.

Honeysuckle : For those who dwell too much in the past, on lost loved ones, or on ambitions which were never realised. Often they never expect happiness again. Use for anxious behaviour on kennel stays or other separations from family. It can also be helpful in weakness caused by blood loss or illness.

Hornbeam: For the feeling that one doesn't have the strength to get through the normal activities of the day. Teaches mental liveliness and alertness, an enthusiasm for life. If your pet appears to have lost this then this is a remedy to try.

Impatiens: For those who act and think quickly, and have no patience for what they see as the slowness of others. They are irritable nervous animals often anxious during competitions. It can also help with pain.

Larch: For lack of self-confidence and the anticipation of failure. Often they make no attempt to succeed. Teaches self-confidence and the determination to take on challenges.Use for the animal who cowers in submission; perhaps the animal who has been abused.

Mimulus: For known fears: of the dark, thunder, strangers, noise etc. They can be aggressive when cornered or sometimes urinate.  

Mustard : For depression of unknown cause, a sudden gloom which descends upon one for no apparent reason. They prefer solitude and give up hope.

Oak: For those who never give up, regardless of difficulties. This remedy gives such people joy in their endeavours, and teaches them to take a break from time to time. It is excellent for endurance competitions and rebuilding strength after physical stress.

Olive: For mental and physical exhaustion, caused by illness or ordeals. This remedy assists in giving strength and vitality again after physical exhaustion or illness. It also aids with cleansing.

Pine: For those who are never satisfied with themselves and blame themselves for not doing better. For people who suffer from guilt and will even blame themselves for others' mistakes. Attempt to please even the worst owner.

Red Chestnut: The animal who is afraid for those he loves; he stands at the window until his master returns, they are over anxious about their young. It is useful for an animal who has to separated from his owner.

Rock Rose: For extreme fear, for example when left alone during thunder the dog might destroy the house.

Rock Water: For those who adopt repressive, rigid personal regimes, and deny themselves pleasure. Use for stubborn animals. The remedy can also be used for stiffness of the joints.

Scleranthus : Use for loss of balance for example strokes and motion sickness.

Star of Bethlehem: For trauma and shock, whether experienced recently or in the past. Teaches the ability to recover from traumas and to integrate them into the present life. The animals may appear with-drawn or lose the use of a limb or other function.

Sweet Chestnut: For extreme anguish, the feeling that one has reached the limits of one's endurance.

Vervain : The remedy can calm the hyperactive, intense animal constantly barking and jumping. It can help with the tendency to roam or escape.

Vine: For those who insist that others do things their way. They are strong willed and hard to train.
Walnut : This remedy eases all transitions for example moves loss of a limb or a new owner.
Water Violet : For those who loners, sometimes proud and aloof. They prefer solitude when ill. The remedy teaches them to interact with others without sacrificing their independence. Many cats fit this remedy well.


White Chestnut : For anxious animals. Teaches a balanced state of mind and the ability to use one's thoughts constructively.
Wild Oat: They appear depressed from boredom use for instance after retirement from competition. e.g. feather plucking or other destructive activities.
Wild Rose: For resignation and apathy, for those who make no effort to find joy in their lives. Teaches enthusiasm and the ability to make life meaningful.

Willow: For resentment, which usually shows as destructive behaviour. Teaches one to take responsibility for one's own life.

minibabyqq 2006-12-20 04:13

轉貼自4682


[size=5][color=Magenta][b]甲狀腺問題在狗[/b][/color][/size]

甲狀腺問題:
甲狀腺坐ithe 氣管的脖子或邊或windpipe 。它生產激素, 甲狀腺素, 控制新陳代謝或速度的身體整體上和它是因而一個非常重要封墊。有可能發生與甲狀腺或結束或在甲狀腺激素的生產之下的二個基本的問題。
在激素的生產之下導致緩慢的新陳代謝率和緩慢的心率, 動物是較不活躍經常獲取的重量和有一件惡劣的外套。這發生主要在狗。
overactive 甲狀腺導致快速的心率、增加的胃口、減重和經常趕緊的不安定的自然。這成為非常共同的混亂在更舊的貓。左未經治療是可能損壞其它器官譬如肝臟和顯著催促變老。
他們認為是顯示用不同的方式在2 個種類的一個自動免疫的問題。
預防那裡是那些由於在寵物的數量的迅速增量一般責備接種、添加劑在飲食和汙染物遭受這些疾病。

治療

在生產之下:


飲食
自然飲食以以下補充可能幫助:

最重要的加法是海帶(海草) 。它是可得到從我們作為粉末或片劑和長期被推薦了為惡劣的外套。
L 酚基乙氨酸是同甲狀腺聯繫在一起的低水平在人的氨基酸缺乏。您能用這補充在100 的水平毫克每10kg 日報。
甲狀腺萃取物可能被使用, 一些獸醫相信這些比形式被使用在常規甲狀腺treatment.They 較不可能導致身體自然甲狀腺激素的是激素補充的更加平衡的形式鎮壓
我聽取了對燕麥的用途在飲食與茴香一起可能幫助減少對甲狀腺補充的需要的報告。
Homeopathic 補救
最成功的方法將得到一張憲法處方從您的homeopathic 狩醫。甲狀腺萃取物是可利用的作為一個homeopathic 補救, 可能幫助。每日使用低有力即6x 的正規兵藥量。

草本補救

結束生產:

常規治療為這個情況將給Carbamizole 或Felamizole anti-thyroid 藥物直到情況的合理的控制達到並且然後去除或毀壞封墊使用放射性碘。這些可能有旁邊影響但是必要的在許多情況下。嘗試以下一但如果這迅速地不導致一個反應然後您應該考慮甲狀腺或至少大多數的外科撤除。理想地尋找一位全部獸醫和作為他們的忠告。
飲食
因為自然飲食曾經將幫助。少量補充似乎產生變化。綠色菜特別是brassicas 譬如新芽和brocolli 指定的未加工, liquidised 可能減慢甲狀腺的生產嘗試這些如果您的貓將採取他們。某一報告, 海帶可能是有利的。
Homeopathic 補救
一種憲法方法再是最佳。多數hyperthyroid 貓符合很好Iodium 的圖片: 不安定和熱以大胃口仍然減重。如果您的伴侶適合這張圖片然後嘗試這個補救6c 藥量每日兩次被給4 天首先將顯示您如果它將幫助。
草本補救
中國草本混合物可能幫助的鎮靜精神。


Thyroid Problems:
The thyroid gland sits ithe neck either side of the trachea or windpipe. It produces a hormone, thyroxine, which controls the metabolism or speed of the body as a whole and it is thus a very important gland. There are two basic problems that can occur with the thyroid gland either an over or under production of the thyroid hormones.
Under production of the hormone results in a slow metabolic rate and a slow heart rate, the animal is less active often gaining weight and has a poor coat. This occurs mostly in dogs.
An overactive thyroid produces a fast heart rate, increased appetite, weight loss and often a hurried restless nature. This is becoming a very common disorder in older cats. Left untreated is can damage other organs such as the liver and dramatically hasten ageing.
They are thought to be an autoimmune problem which shows in different ways in the 2 species.
Prevention There have been those that blame vaccination, additives in the diet and pollutants generally for the rapid increase in the numbers of pets suffering from these diseases.

Treatment

Under production:


Diet
A natural diet with the following supplements can help:

The most important addition is kelp (seaweed). It is available from us as a powder or tablets and has long been recommended for poor coats.
L-Tyrosine is an amino acid the deficiency of which has been associated with low levels of thyroid in man. You could supplement with this at the level of 100 mg per 10kg daily.
Thyroid gland extracts can be used, some veterinarians believe these are more balanced form of hormone supplement than the form used in conventional thyroid treatment.They are less likely to cause suppression of the body natural thyroid hormones
I have heard reports that the use of oats in the diet along with fennel can help reduce the need for thyroid supplementation.
Homeopathic Remedies
The most successful approach is to get a constitutional prescription from your homeopathic vet. Thyroid gland extract is available as a homeopathic remedy and can help. Use regular daily doses of a low potency e.g. 6x.

Herbal Remedies

Over production:

The conventional treatment for this condition is to give Carbamizole or Felamizole anti-thyroid drugs until reasonable control of the condition is achieved and then remove or destroy the gland using radioactive iodine. These can have side affects but are necessary in many cases. Try the following first but if this does not rapidly produce a response then you should consider surgical removal of the thyroid or at least most of it. Ideally look for a holistic veterinarian and as their advice.
Diet
As ever a natural diet will help. Few supplements seem to make much difference. Green vegetables in particular brassicas such as sprouts and brocolli given raw, liquidised can slow the thyroid gland's production try these if your cat will take them. Some report that kelp can be beneficial.
Homeopathic Remedies
Again a constitutional approach is the best. However most hyperthyroid cats fit well with the picture of Iodium: restless and hot with a large appetite and yet weight loss. If your companion fits this picture then try this remedy first a 6c dose given twice daily for 4 days will show you if it will help.
Herbal Remedies
Calm Spirit a Chinese herbal mixture can help.

minibabyqq 2006-12-20 04:13

[table][tr][td]轉貼自4682

[size=12px][b][size=5][color=magenta]NEEM 在獸醫用途[/color][/size][/b]

獸醫用途





NEEM 在動物健康中

NEEM 作為動物飼養

DE-OILED NEEM 種子蛋糕在動物飼養中



NEEM 在動物健康中



幾個世紀以來Neem 被使用了在印度提供健康蓋子對家畜以各種各樣的形式。它非常廣泛並且被應用作為動物飼養。古老Sanskrit 文學表明, Neem 應用由Nakul 和Sahadeva 之後使用在Mahabharata 史詩並且很大數量的土產處方和公式化。



幾乎每樹的部份苦澀和發現應用在土產醫學。紀錄存在, Neem 被使用了在很大數量的疾病在動物中範圍從系統混亂對傳染和傷害。



在現代獸醫Neem 萃取物知道擁有抗糖尿, 抗菌和抗病毒物產和他們成功地被使用了在胃蠕蟲和潰瘍盒。詞根和根咆哮並且年輕果子被報告擁有收斂劑, 補劑和反週期性物產。根吠聲被報告活躍的比詞根吠聲和年輕果子。吠聲被報告是有利的在皮膚疾病。



樹汁:

一些樹, 特別是在水路線附近流出樹汁形式自然地詞根打翻。樹汁被認為冷凍劑、營養素和補劑, 和有用在癩、補劑在消化不良和一般衰弱。



膠:

Neem 吠聲流出清楚, 明亮和琥珀色色的膠, 以東方印度膠著名。膠是興奮劑、潤藥和補劑和是有用的在catarrhal 和其他傳染。



葉子:

葉子包含nimbin 、nimbinene 、6-desacetylnimbiene 、nimbandiol 、nimbolide 和五¥黃酮。betasitosterol 、n-hexacosanol 和nonacosane 出現並且被報告。



葉子是排除胃腸氣體和援助消化。招標離開與吹笛者nigrum 一起Linn., 被發現有效的在小腸helminthiasis 。葉子漿糊是有用的在一種含水萃取物母牛痘(10%) 嫩葉子被報告擁有抗病毒物產反對vaccinia, variola 、foulpox 和新城堡疾病病毒的潰瘍。marketedly 延遲血液的凝結的時期葉子的萃取物產生分數。新鮮的葉子的強的滴露被描述為antisceptic 。葉子的熱的注入被使用作為anodyne 為挑起脹大的封墊、挫傷和扭傷。



果子:

果子用作為補劑, antiperiodic, 淨化, 鎮痛劑和作為antithelmintic 。乾果子被挫傷在水中和被使用對待皮膚疾病。



種子& 橄欖油:

仁產生黃綠色對棕色, 尖酸, 苦澀固定的油(40.0-48.9%), 以Margosa 的油著名。油有許多治療用途和被蓋在印第安Pharmacopia 。油的醫藥物產歸因於苦澀原則和香化合物出現。苦澀原則被使用在配藥產業。油的子宮內療程控制不同的類型metritis 。油被報告有anti-fertility 物產。它posseses 殺真菌劑和防腐活動和被發現活躍的反對Gram-negative 和Gram-positive 微生物。



Neem 油的作用被評估了在糖尿病裡作為antihyperlycaemic 代理。Neem 油顯示了antihyperglycaemic 作用在狗。







NEEM 作為動物飼養



葉子:

Neem 葉子包含看得出的相當數量蛋白質、礦物和胡蘿蔔素和充分相當數量蹤影礦物除了鋅。這些也許是有用的在緩和銅缺乏當哺養秸桿和乾飼料。



山羊& 駱駝:

山羊和駱駝美味砍Neem 葉子並且這些相當經常被哺養作為單一飼料對他們在冬天季節當樹不是需要的為棚子。但是, 系統的研究不是可利用的在Neem 哺養由這些動物。記住這些動物有能力興旺在熱並且乾燥區域, 那裡是可觀的範圍撫養他們在Neem 葉子。



牛和水牛:

Neem 葉子有digestable 天然蛋白質的看得出的數量(DCP) 並且共計digestable 營養素(TDN) 。牛可能被哺養枝杈和葉子少量當與其它飼料混合。



禽畜:

Neem 油罐被使用在禽畜定量。脂肪酸結構的油表明, 這是長鏈脂肪酸的一個富有的來源。它包含azadirachtin 、meliantriol 和salannin 。Neem 油罐被使用在禽畜定量。



DE-OILED NEEM 種子蛋糕在動物飼養中



這可能可觀地減少短缺蛋白質補充在上流生產動物。種子從Neem 產生充足的油並且殘餘的蛋糕是主要副產物。Neem 蛋糕包括所有根本和非本質氨基酸包括硫磺包含氨基酸但以纈氨酸和trytophan 的微不足道的數量。蛋糕包含是更多比其它蛋糕的硫磺1.07-1.36% 。n含量變化從2-3% 。蛋糕有高天然蛋白質、以太萃取物和纖維內容。Neem 種子蛋糕是動物蛋白質(40% 的) 一個非常好來源。保持的quallity 是好的並且它容易地不被損壞在存貯亦不是它攻擊了由真菌。被處理的蛋糕可能被使用作為好禽畜飼料。因為蛋糕苦澀, 它作為一道好開胃菜。這並且是wormicide 。



對Neem 的用途在獸醫方面在印度建於史詩Mahabharata 的時代 (300 B.C) 。根據學者, 二五個Pandava 兄弟 Nakul 和 Sahadev, 實踐獸醫, 半新Neem 對待衰弱和受傷的馬和大象由申請poultices 準備從Neem 葉子和Neem 上油為癒合創傷等, 在Mahabharata 期間爭鬥 。  古老Sanskrit 文學表明Neem 應用作為飼料和在很大數量的處方和公式化提供健康蓋子對家畜以各種各樣的形式。各種各樣的Neem 準備被規範化了以油、擦劑、粉末和液體的形式。  Ayurvedic 學者推薦對Neem 油的用途作為退燒藥, 鎮靜劑, 抗發炎, analgestic, antihistaminic, 驅蟲劑和作為acaricide 。



Neem 傳統上被使用了反對各種各樣的家畜昆蟲譬如蛆、hornflies 、麗蠅和咬住的飛行。Neem 是還有用的為控制一些細菌獸醫重要和反對小腸蠕蟲在動物中。Patnaik, (1993) 突出neem 的家畜友好的醫藥角色在以下: "樹(neem) 由Indian herdsmen 尊敬作為一柔和但有效的獸醫poultice 、賢良由16 th世紀 葡萄牙植物學家證實和旅客, Garciada Orta 在他的" Coloquios "。



1929 年' 筆記關於義賣市場和土產藥物有用在動物的詳細被出版, 名單的治療Neem 的獸醫應用。它注意到, "葉子、吠聲和油被表達從種子一般被使用。Neem 樹的準備是好苦澀補劑, antiperiodic 和收斂劑和內部被使用與其它藥物的組合有相似的物產。  他們最好被執行以滴露的形式。他們是最有用的在熱病和衰弱。外在地, 葉子被使用以各種各樣的形式, 譬如未加工的被擊碎的大量、poultice 和洗滌。被挫傷的葉子, 混雜與木炭或石灰, 形成一種好應用對創傷, 潰瘍, 小膿胞的爆發, 譬如動物流行病的aphtha, 等。葉子的滴露形成可貴的防腐和醫治用的化妝水對骯髒的痛處和潰瘍。葉子煮沸與羅望子樹葉子被應用作為poultice 嚮激動脹大。油嚮創傷被應用作為防腐選礦。它是高度有效的在寄生疾病、所有種類和丹毒的皮膚喜愛, 等, 因為它包含硫磺在有機組合。它是還有用的在去除蛆從創傷。油被獲得從大多義賣市場"。劑量並且大約被提及:



藥量- 吠聲-                                                              藥量- 油

馬               ...         ...         1-2 盎司。                          馬               ...         ...         2-4

牛               ...         ...         2-3 盎司                           牛               ...         ...         4-6

綿羊              ...         ...         1/4 - 1/2 盎司                    綿羊              ...         ...         1-2

狗                  ...         ...         1/4 - 1



筆記進一步包含細節在用法, 表明Neem 普遍採納在動物健康中在印度在早期的20 世紀期間。


Neem 吠聲(Margosa), 被挫傷           ... 1 盎司              ... 87 (藥物沒有。)

水  ...         ...         ....                ... 1 品脫。



煮沸為20 分鐘和張力(滴露) 。每日兩次被給。一苦澀補劑, antiperiodic, 和收斂劑。藥量- 馬和牛1/2 - 1 品脫; 狗1-2 盎司。



Neem 吠聲(Margosa), 被挫傷            ... 1 盎司。            ... 87 (藥物沒有。)

桂香(Dalchinni), 被挫傷            ... 4 dr 。             ... 37 (藥物沒有。)

丁香(Laung), 被挫傷                      ... 2 dr 。             ... 38 (藥物沒有。)

水  ...         ...         ...                  ... 1 品脫。



煮沸為20 分鐘和張力。給當寒冷每日兩次。好補劑在衰弱在熱病以後攻擊。藥量- 馬和牛1/2 - 1 品脫; 狗- 1 盎司。



Neem 或Margosa 油              ...         ... 8 盎司。             ... 87 (藥物沒有。)

松節油(Gandhi 電話)            ...         ... 4 盎司。             ... 104 (藥物沒有。)

在創傷和潰瘍的可貴的防腐應用。



Neem 或Margosa 油               ...         ... 1 品脫。          ... 87 (藥物沒有。)

用硫處理(Gundak)                    ...          ... 1 盎司。           ... 99 (藥物沒有。)



混合好。好擦劑為慢性風濕病。很好被摩擦入受影響的部份。



研究員在過去幾年學習古老處方像Neem 與現代生化工具。  在一次最近試驗在在班格洛的一所大學, (1) 它被觀察, 酒精根據了Neem 葉子萃取物被顯示的有為的結果體外試驗與其它草本比較。  



Neem 離開並且它的萃取物被使用作為免役興奮劑在禽畜群。  在禽畜產業, neem 葉子並且利用防止aflatoxicosis 由Aspergillus.flavus 造成, 起源於油餅或玉米, 適當地不被烘乾和不用作為飼料的成份。  對neem 蛋糕的用途作為蛋白質替補有經濟好處在它是豐富的那些國家。

VETERINARY USES





NEEM IN ANIMAL HEALTH

NEEM AS ANIMAL FEED

DE-OILED NEEM SEED CAKE IN ANIMAL FEED



NEEM IN ANIMAL HEALTH



For centuries Neem has been used in India provide health cover to livestock in various forms. It has also very widely been used as animal feed. Ancient Sanskrit literature indicates that Neem applications were used by Nakul and Sahadeva in the epic of Mahabharata as well as afterwards in a large number of indigenous prescriptions and formulations.



Almost every part of the tree is bitter and finds application in indigenous medicine. Records exist that Neem has been used in a large number of ailments in animals ranging from systemic disorders to infections and injuries.



In modern veterinary medicine Neem extracts are known to possess anti-diabetic, anti-bacterial and anti-viral properties and they have been used successfully in cases of stomach worms and ulcers.. The stem and root bark and young fruits are reported to possess astringent, tonic and anti-periodic properties. The root bark is reported to be more active than the stem bark and young fruits. The bark is reported to be beneficial in cutaneous diseases.



SAP:

Some trees, especially near the water courses exude a sap naturally form the stem-tip. The sap is considered refrigerant, nutrient and tonic, and useful in skin diseases, a tonic in dyspepsia and general debility.



GUM:

The Neem bark exudes a clear, bright and amber-coloured gum, known as the East India gum. The gum is stimulant, demulcent and tonic and is useful in catarrhal and other infections.



LEAVES:

The leaves contain nimbin, nimbinene, 6-desacetylnimbiene, nimbandiol, nimbolide and quercetin. The presence of betasitosterol, n-hexacosanol and nonacosane is also reported.



Leaves are carminative and aid digestion. The tender leaves along with Piper nigrum Linn., are found to be effective in intestinal helminthiasis. The paste of leaves is useful in ulceration of cow-pox An aqueous extract (10%) of tender leaves is reported to possess anti-viral properties against vaccinia, variola, foulpox and New Castle disease virus. The extract of leaf yields fractions which marketedly delay the clotting time of blood. The strong decoction of fresh leaves is stated to be an antisceptic. The hot infusion of leaves is used as anodyne for fomenting swollen glands, bruises and sprains.



FRUITS:

The fruit is used as a tonic, antiperiodic, purgative, emollient and as an antithelmintic. The dry fruits are bruised in water and employed to treat cutaneous diseases.



SEED & KERNEL OIL:

The kernels yield a greenish yellow to brown, acrid, bitter fixed oil (40.0-48.9%), known as Oil of Margosa. The oil has many therapeutic uses and is covered in Indian Pharmacopia. Medicinal properties of the oil are attributed to the presence of bitter principles and odorous compounds. The bitter principles are used in the pharmaceutical industry. Intrauterine medication of oil controls different types of metritis. The oil is reported to have anti-fertility properties. It posseses anti-fungal and antiseptic activity and is found to be active against both Gram negative and Gram positive micro-organisms.



Effect of Neem oil has been evaluated in diabetes as antihyperlycaemic agent. The Neem oil has shown antihyperglycaemic effect in dogs.







NEEM AS ANIMAL FEED



Leaves:

Neem leaves contain appreciable amount of protein, minerals and carotene and adequate amount of trace minerals except zinc. These may be helpful in alleviating the copper deficiency when feeding straw and dry fodder.



Goat & Camel:

Goat and Camel relish lopped Neem leaves and quite often these are fed as sole feed to them in winter season when tree is not needed for shed. However, systematic studies are not available on Neem feeding by these animals. Keeping in view these animals have the capability to thrive in hot and dry areas, there is considerable scope of rearing them on Neem leaves.



Cattle and buffaloes:

The Neem leaves have appreciable quantity of digestable crude protein (DCP) and total digestable nutrients (TDN). Cattle can be fed twigs and leaves in small quantities when mixed with other feeds.



Poultry:

Neem oil can be used in poultry rations. The fatty acid composition of oil indicates that it is a rich source of long chain fatty acids. It contains azadirachtin, meliantriol and salannin. Neem oil can be used in poultry rations.



DE-OILED NEEM SEED CAKE IN ANIMAL FEED



This can considerably reduce the shortage of protein supplements in high producing animals. Seeds from Neem yield sufficient oil and the residual cake is the major by-product. Neem cake consists of all essential and non-essential amino acids including sulphur containing amino acids but with negligible quantities of valine and trytophan. The cake contains sulphur 1.07-1.36% which is more than other cakes. The N content varies from 2-3%. The cake has high crude protein, ether extract and fibre contents. Neem seed cake is a very good source of animal protein ( up to 40% ) . The keeping quallity is good and it is not easily spoiled on storage nor is it attacked by fungi. The processed cake can be employed as a good poultry feed. Since the cake is bitter, it acts as a good appetizer. It is also a wormicide.



The use of Neem in veterinary medicine in India dates back to the times of the epic Mahabharata (300 B.C). According to scholars, two of the five Pandava brothers Nakul and Sahadev, who practiced veterinary medicine, used Neem to treat ailing and wounded horses and elephants by applying poultices prepared from Neem leaves and Neem oil for healing the wounds etc., during the battle of Mahabharata.  Ancient Sanskrit literature indicates Neem applications as feed and in a large number of prescriptions and formulations to provide health cover to livestock in various forms. Various Neem preparations were standardized in the form of oils, liniments, powders and liquids.  Ayurvedic scholars recommend the use of Neem oil as antipyretic, sedative, anti-inflammatory, analgestic, antihistaminic, anthelmintic and as an acaricide.



Neem has been traditionally used against various livestock insects such as maggots, hornflies, blow-flies and biting flies. Neem is also useful for controlling some bacteria of veterinary importance and against intestinal worms in animals. Patnaik, (1993) highlights the livestock friendly medicinal role of neem in the following: “the tree (neem) is revered by Indian herdsmen as a gentle but effective veterinary poultice, a virtue confirmed by the 16th century Portuguese botanist and traveler, Garciada Orta in his “Coloquios”.



'Notes on the Bazaar and Indigenous Drugs Useful in the Treatment of Animals' published in 1929, lists the Veterinary applications of Neem in detail. It notes that "leaves, bark and oil expressed from the seeds are generally used. Internally the preparations of the Neem tree are a good bitter tonic, antiperiodic and astringent and are used in combination with other drugs having similar properties.  They are best administered in the form of a decoction. They are most useful in fever and debility. Externally, the leaves are used in varied forms, such as raw crushed mass, poultice and wash. The bruised leaves, mixed with charcoal or lime, form a good application to wounds, ulcers, pustular eruptions, such as epizootic aphtha, etc. The decoction of the leaves forms a valuable antiseptic and healing lotion to foul sores and ulcers. The leaves boiled with tamarind leaves are applied as a poultice to inflammatory swellings. The oil is applied to wounds as an antiseptic dressing. It is highly efficacious in parasitic diseases, cutaneous affections of all kinds and erysipelas, etc., as it contains sulphur in organic combination. It is also useful in removing maggots from the wounds. The oil is obtained from most of the bazaars". The approx. dosages are also mentioned:



Doses - Bark -                                                              Doses - Oil

Horse               ...         ...         1-2 oz.                          Horse               ...         ...         2-4

Cattle               ...         ...         2-3 oz                           Cattle               ...         ...         4-6

Sheep              ...         ...         1/4 - 1/2 oz                    Sheep              ...         ...         1-2

Dog                  ...         ...         1/4 - 1



Further the Notes contain details on usage, which indicate the widespread acceptance of Neem in Animal Health in India during the early twentieth century.


Neem bark (Margosa), bruised           ... 1 oz              ... 87 (Drug No.)

Water  ...         ...         ....                ... 1 pint.



Boil for 20 minutes and strain (DECOCTION). To be given twice daily. A bitter tonic, antiperiodic, and astringent. Doses - Horse and cattle 1/2 - 1 pint; Dog 1-2 oz.



Neem bark (Margosa), bruised            ... 1 oz.            ... 87 (Drug No.)

Cinnamon (Dalchinni), bruised            ... 4 dr.             ... 37 (Drug No.)

Cloves (Laung), bruised                      ... 2 dr.             ... 38 (Drug No.)

Water  ...         ...         ...                  ... 1 pint.



Boil for 20 minutes and strain. Given when cold twice daily. A good tonic in debility after an attack of fever. Dose - Horse and Cattle 1/2 - 1 pint; Dog - 1 oz.



Neem or Margosa Oil              ...         ... 8 oz.             ... 87 (Drug No.)

Turpentine (Gandhi-tel)            ...         ... 4 oz.             ... 104 (Drug No.)

Valuable antiseptic application to wounds and ulcers.



Neem or Margosa Oil               ...         ... 1 pint.          ... 87 (Drug No.)

Sulphur (Gundak)                    ...          ... 1 oz.           ... 99 (Drug No.)



Mix well. A good liniment for chronic rheumatism. To be well rubbed into the affected part.



In the past few years researchers have been studying ancient prescriptions like Neem with tools of modern bio-chemistry.  In a recent trial at an University in Bangalore, (1) it has been observed that alcohol based Neem leaf extract showed promising results in vitro trials as compared to other herbs.  



Neem leaves and its extracts are being used as immuno stimulants in poultry flocks.  In the poultry industry, use of neem leaves is also made to prevent aflatoxicosis caused by Aspergillus flavus, which originates from oil cakes or maize, which are not dried properly and used as an ingredient of the feed.  Use of neem cake as a protein substitute has an economical advantage in those countries where it is abundant.[/size]
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minibabyqq 2006-12-20 04:14

[table][tr][td]轉貼自4682

[size=12px][b][size=5][color=magenta]Ehrlichiosis 疾病[/color][/size][/b]

Ehrlichia canis 是第一種類已知傳染狗, 並且傳染導致各種各樣的深刻和慢性臨床和臨床症狀不顯的綜合症狀。 Ehrlichiosis platys 傳染狗, 並且也許導致循環thrombocytopenia 但最小的臨床病症。幾其它Ehrlichia spp. 傳染狗, 最共同是 E. ewingii 、E. chaffeensis 、E. risticii, 和E. equi。多數世界的地區有Ehrlichia spp 。在貓, E. canis 和 E. equi 能導致自然傳染, 雖然其它Ehrlichia 的種類可能實驗性地傳染貓。


傳染媒介

壁虱傳輸傳染媒介為Ehrlichia spp. 通常是 Ixodes 壁虱以ehrlichiosis 的granulocytic 形式和 Rhipicephalus 、Amblyomna 或 Dermacentor 壁虱與monocytic Ehrlichia spp 。在馬, E. risticii 可能由吸蟲類階段的攝取傳送被發現在中間主人裡譬如水生昆蟲和蝸牛。


臨床顯示

multisystemic 混亂, ehrlichiosis 為消沉、慵倦、溫和的減重, 和厭食描繪, 以和沒有hemorrlogic 標誌。如果禮物, 流血通常體現petechiae 、ecchymoses 、食道靈菌並且/或者流鼻血。其它較不共同的標誌包括uveitis 、polymyositis 、多關節炎, 和中央神經系統標誌譬如奪取、不整齊、前庭缺乏, 和小腦的官能不良。成人呼吸困厄綜合症狀和急性腎衰竭也許還出現在狗依照被看見在人。許多狗明顯地被暴露和seroconvert 但從未顯示疾病的臨床標誌。一些動物懷有代理幾個月甚至幾年來沒有顯現出的病症。德國牧羊人狗也許是事先安排好的對臨床ehrlichiosis 。似犬ehrlichiosis 的多數臨床顯示並且被描述了在貓。


實驗室研究結果

最一致地, CBC 將顯露thrombocytopenia 和溫和的nonregenerative 貧血症在狗和貓。一些被傳染的狗有正常血小板計數。血細胞減少發生在嚴厲慢性階段疾病從骨髓發育不全。顆粒狀淋巴球過多症可能發生和仿造很好被區分的lymphocytic 白血病。在受影響的狗中的大約1/3, hyperproteinemia 被報告。polyclonal gamnopathy 是最共同, 但monoclonal 或biclonal gamnopathies 看了在狗和貓。

在 狗, 診斷由查出通常做具體抗體由間接免役繁榮昌盛的抗體(IFA) 測試。清液ehrlichial 抗體可能被查出儘早7 天在最初的傳染但一些狗變得seropositive 在28 天之後之後。因而, 臨床疾病症狀可能發生在清液抗體的發展之前在深刻地被傳染的狗。在這些情況下強烈被懷疑的傳染, IFA 測試應該被重覆在2-3 星期。

Cross-reactivity 在Ehrlichia 之中spp. 是易變的, 和因此 E. canis- 基於的抗體測試經常不查出其它Ehrlichia spp 。 E. canis IFA 測試查出只~40% 狗被感染 E. ewingii, 和 不查出任一 E. risticii- 或 E. equi- 被傳染的狗。Idexx 短冷期3Dx 測試不查出狗被感染 E. ewingii 、E. risticii, 或 E. equi。

IFA 測試結果通常被報告作為定量抗體滴定量。但是, 滴定量水平 不關聯以傳染的疾病期間或嚴肅。專家相信, 滴定量> 1:80 應該被認為正面。它重要記得, 在地方性區域, 許多健康狗有正面IFA 滴定量對 E. canis。

在 貓, 一個明確的聲明關於診斷ehrlichial 血清學的公共事業無法被做。為貓與臨床研究結果支援ehrlichiosis 和seropositivity 與 E. canis 或 E. risticii 試劑, 治療與antiehrlichial 藥物被勸告。一些貓發現了正面為 DNA 是 seronegative 由IFA 的E. canis 。


PCR 測試和西Immunoblotting

由於血清學測試, PCR 測試的局限也許充當在診斷似犬和似貓的ehrlichiosis 的一個更加重要的角色。PCR 方法是非常敏感的為ehrlichial 傳染的偵查在狗。它建議, PCR 測試被使用與IFA 血清學一道, 並且不是代替它, 為ehrlichiosis 診斷。治療被推薦為PCR 正面狗, 甚而那些臨床症狀不顯地被傳染, 因為他們罐頭decompensate, 和開發臨床疾病。


治療

藥物最頻繁地被使用今天對待所有Ehrlichia spp. 是doxycycline 和二甲胺四環素, 雖然四圜素和土黴素仍然被使用。專家當前推薦doxycycline 在10 mg/kg P O q 劑量24 小時28 天。劇烈的臨床改善通常看在24-48hrs. Doxycycline 之內並且四圜素成功地並且被使用了在同樣劑量在貓與被假定的ehrlichiosis 。可能被使用的其它藥物是imidocarb dispropriate 在2 藥量5 mg/kg IM 分開被給2-3 星期為狗或貓。Enrofloxacin, 有效地使用對待岩石山察覺了熱病, 是無效的在 E. canis 傳染。因為thrombocytopenia 發生在大約82% 狗中被感染 E. canis, 血小板計數的正常化通常是表示的對療法的好反應。血小板計數開始增加在24-48 個小時療法以後和通常是正常的在14 天裡。如果決議 不看7 在天內的療法, 考慮免疫斡旋的小片破壞或coinfection 診斷與Babesia spp. 或Bartonella 。Hyperglobulinemia 逐漸將解決在6-9 個月如果有機體被消滅了。血清學抗體水平逐漸decline 和典型地將變得消極在6-9 個月療法內, 雖然狗以高清液滴定量能維護他們長期, 甚而幾年。因而, 監測IFA 滴定量大概不是一個非常有效的方式估計對治療的反應。PCR 測試也許是有用的在區別成功地被對待的狗以堅持地高IFA 滴定量與不成功地被對待的狗。


在地方性區域, 嚴密的壁虱控制程式應該被實施為狗和前提。健康狗定期血清學掩護一般不被推薦, 亦不是治療適當為健康seropositive, PCR 消極抗菌抵抗的狗由於在不利影響的潛力和發展。為介紹新狗對Ehrlichia spp. 消極狗窩, 篩選他們由IFA 被勸告以便任一條seropositive 狗可能被對待與doxycycline 作為防備措施, 在加入休息之前。

有最小的zoonotic 風險為Ehrlichia 直接傳輸spp. 從狗或貓人民。狗運載被傳染的壁虱在地方性地區, 然而, 能作為一個水庫主人使傳輸人民。


[ 摘抄從ACVIM 公眾輿論聲明從傳染病學習小組, Neer, 等, J 狩醫內部Med 16:309-315 2002 年; 以允許]
常用的Ehrlichia 測試總結*
測試 測試編碼 樣品要求 評論
Ehrlichia canis IFA T570 清液: . 機器語言極小值 查出抗體反對 E. canis。< 1:20 是消極滴定量, > 1:80 是正面的滴定量, 滴定量在1:20 和1:80 之間被認為嫌疑。唯一正面滴定量表明曝光, 不一定當前的傳染。展示4 摺疊上升的滴定量在清液收集了3-4 個星期分開表明深刻傳染。 E. canis IFA 測試 不十字架起反應與 E. equi 或 E. risticii, 但是某一cross-reaction 發生與 E. ewingii (~40% E. ewingii- 被傳染的狗將有正面 E. canis IFA 測試) 。
Ehrlichia risticii IFA A16270 清液: 1mL 極小值 查出抗體反對 E. risticii。唯一正面滴定量表明曝光, 不一定當前的傳染。展示4 摺疊上升的滴定量在清液收集了3-4 個星期分開表明深刻傳染。
Ehrlichia equi IFA S16872 清液: 1mL 極小值 查出抗體反對 E. equi。唯一正面滴定量表明曝光, 不一定當前的傳染。展示4 摺疊上升的滴定量在清液收集了3-4 個星期分開表明深刻傳染。
Ehrlichia spp. PCR 7002 整體血液在LTT 、synovial 流體或CSF 在LTT 或RTT, 脾臟吐氣在LTT; . 機器語言極小值  這是"平底鍋" ehrlichia PCR 測試, 將查出傳染以各種各樣的ehrlichia 種類。如果測試是正面的, 有機體將是speciated 對 E. canis、 E. ewingii、 E. equi, 或 E. risticii。一個正面PCR 測試表明當前的傳染以ehrlichia 和治療被擔保。

LTT, 淡紫色頂面管(EDTA); RTT, 紅頂管(清液)       * 其它Ehrlichia spp. 可能並且被測量(電話實驗室)
Ehrlichia canis was the first species known to infect dogs, and infection results in a variety of acute and chronic clinical and subclinical syndromes. Ehrlichiosis platys also infects dogs and may cause cyclic thrombocytopenia but minimal clinical illness. Several other Ehrlichia spp. infect dogs, the most common being E. ewingii, E. chaffeensis, E. risticii, and E. equi. Most regions of the world have Ehrlichia spp. In cats, E. canis and E. equi can cause natural infections, although other species of Ehrlichia can experimentally infect cats.


Vectors

Tick transmission vectors for Ehrlichia spp. are usually Ixodes ticks with the granulocytic forms of ehrlichiosis and Rhipicephalus, Amblyomna or Dermacentor ticks with the monocytic Ehrlichia spp. In horses, E. risticii can be transmitted by ingestion of the trematode stages found in intermediate hosts such as aquatic insects and snails.


Clinical Manifestations

A multisystemic disorder, ehrlichiosis is characterized by depression, lethargy, mild weight loss, and anorexia, both with and without hemorrlogic signs. If present, bleeding usually manifests petechiae, ecchymoses, gastrointestinal bleeding and/or epistaxis. Other less common signs include uveitis, polymyositis, polyarthritis, and central nervous system signs such as seizures, ataxia, vestibular deficits, and cerebellar dysfunction. Adult respiratory distress syndrome and acute renal failure also may occur in dogs as seen in humans. Many dogs are apparently exposed and seroconvert but never show clinical signs of the disease. Some animals harbor the agent for months or even years without developing illness. German Shepherd dogs may be predisposed to clinical ehrlichiosis. Most clinical manifestations of canine ehrlichiosis also have been described in cats.


Laboratory Findings

Most consistently, the CBC will reveal thrombocytopenia and mild nonregenerative anemia in dogs and cats. Some infected dogs have normal platelet counts. Pancytopenia occurs in severe chronic phase disease from bone marrow hypoplasia. Granular lymphocytosis can occur and mimic well-differentiated lymphocytic leukemia. In about 1/3 of affected dogs, hyperproteinemia is reported. A polyclonal gamnopathy is most common, but monoclonal or biclonal gamnopathies have been seen in both dogs and cats.
In the dog, diagnosis usually is made by detecting specific antibodies by indirect immuno- florescent antibody (IFA) test. Serum ehrlichial antibodies can be detected as early as 7 days after initial infection but some dogs become seropositive only after 28 days. Thus, clinical signs of disease can occur before the development of serum antibodies in acutely infected dogs. In such cases of strongly suspected infection, the IFA test should be repeated in 2-3 weeks.

Cross-reactivity among Ehrlichia spp. is variable, and so E. canis-based antibody tests often fail to detect other Ehrlichia spp. The E. canis IFA test detects only ~40% of dogs infected with E. ewingii, and does not detect any E. risticii- or E. equi-infected dogs. The Idexx Snap 3Dx test does not detect dogs infected with E. ewingii, E. risticii, or E. equi.

The IFA test results are usually reported as a quantitative antibody titer. However, titer levels do not correlate with duration of infection or severity of disease. Experts believe that titers >1:80 should be considered positive. It is important to remember that in endemic areas, many healthy dogs have positive IFA titers to E. canis.

In the cat, a definitive statement about the utility of diagnostic ehrlichial serology cannot be made. For cats with clinical findings supportive of ehrlichiosis and seropositivity with E. canis or E. risticii reagents, treatment with antiehrlichial drugs is advised. Some cats found positive for E. canis DNA are seronegative by IFA.


PCR Testing and Western Immunoblotting

Due to the limitations of serological testing, PCR testing may play a more important role in diagnosing canine and feline ehrlichiosis. The PCR method is very sensitive for detection of ehrlichial infections in dogs. It is recommended that PCR testing be used in conjunction with IFA serology, and not instead of it, for the diagnosis of ehrlichiosis. Treatment is recommended for PCR positive dogs, even those that are subclinically infected, as they can decompensate, and develop clinical disease.


Treatment

Drugs used most frequently today to treat all Ehrlichia spp. are doxycycline and minocycline, although tetracycline and oxytetracycline are still used. Experts currently recommend doxycycline at a dosage of 10 mg/kg P O q 24 hr for 28 days. Dramatic clinical improvement is usually seen within 24-48hrs. Doxycycline and tetracycline have also been used successfully at the same dosage in cats with presumed ehrlichiosis. Another drug that can be used is imidocarb dispropriate at 2 doses of 5 mg/kg IM given 2-3 weeks apart for dogs or cats. Enrofloxacin, used effectively to treat Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, is ineffective in E. canis infection. As thrombocytopenia occurs in about 82% of dogs infected with E. canis, normalization of the platelet count is usually indicative of good response to therapy. Platelet counts begin to increase after 24-48 hours of therapy and are usually normal within 14 days. If resolution is not seen within 7 days of therapy, consider a diagnosis of immune-mediated platelet destruction or coinfection with Babesia spp. or Bartonella. Hyperglobulinemia will resolve gradually in 6-9 months if the organism has been eliminated. Serologic antibody levels will gradually decline and typically become negative within 6-9 months of therapy, although dogs with high serum titers can maintain them for longer periods, even years. Thus, monitoring IFA titers is probably not a very effective way to assess response to treatment. The PCR test may be more useful in distinguishing successfully treated dogs with persistently high IFA titers from unsuccessfully treated dogs.
In endemic areas, strict tick control programs should be implemented for dogs and premises. Routine serologic screening of healthy dogs is generally not recommended, nor is treatment advisable for healthy seropositive, PCR negative dogs because of the potential for adverse effects and development of antimicrobial resistance. For introducing new dogs to an Ehrlichia spp. negative kennel, screening them by IFA is advised so that any seropositive dog can be treated with doxycycline as a precaution, before joining the rest.

There is minimal zoonotic risk for direct transmission of Ehrlichia spp. from dogs or cats to people. Dogs carrying infected ticks in endemic regions, however, could act as a reservoir host for transmission to people.


[Excerpted from the ACVIM Consensus Statement from the Infectious Disease Study Group, Neer, et. al, J Vet Int Med 16:309-315, 2002; with permission]
Summary of Commonly Used Ehrlichia Tests*
Test Test Code Sample Requirements Comments
Ehrlichia canis IFA T570 Serum: ¼ mL minimum Detects antibodies against E. canis. <1:20 is negative titer, >1:80 is positive titer, titers between 1:20 and 1:80 are considered suspect. Single positive titer indicates exposure, not necessarily current infection. Demonstrating 4-fold rising titers in serum collected 3-4 weeks apart indicates acute infection. The E. canis IFA test does not cross-react with E. equi or E. risticii, but some cross-reaction occurs with E. ewingii (~40% of E. ewingii-infected dogs will have positive E. canis IFA tests).
Ehrlichia risticii IFA A16270 Serum: 1mL minimum Detects antibodies against E. risticii. Single positive titer indicates exposure, not necessarily current infection. Demonstrating 4-fold rising titer in serum collected 3-4 weeks apart indicates acute infection.
Ehrlichia equi IFA S16872 Serum: 1mL minimum Detects antibodies against E. equi. Single positive titer indicates exposure, not necessarily current infection. Demonstrating 4-fold rising titer in serum collected 3-4 weeks apart indicates acute infection.
Ehrlichia spp. PCR 7002 Whole blood in LTT, synovial fluid or CSF in LTT or RTT, splenic aspirate in LTT; ½ mL minimum  This is a "pan" ehrlichia PCR test and will detect infection with a variety of ehrlichia species. If the test is positive, the organism will be speciated to E. canis, E. ewingii, E. equi, or E. risticii. A positive PCR test indicates current infection with ehrlichia and treatment is warranted.

LTT, Lavender top tube (EDTA); RTT, Red top tube (serum)       * Other Ehrlichia spp. can also be measured (call Lab)[/size]
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[size=12px][b][size=5][color=magenta]腎臟疾病[/color][/size][/b]

Proteinuria 受到了更新的注意作為因素衝擊似犬和似貓的慢性腎衰竭案件進步(CRF) 並且作為早期腎臟病標誌。主要腎臟病, 以及各種各樣的感染, 激動, 新陳代謝和造形術混亂可能損壞glomerular vasculature 和導致白蛋白漏出入glomerular 濾出液, 在臨床症狀不顯的階段。Microalbuminuria (MA), 少量堅持白蛋白在尿, 是主要腎臟病、更低的尿道疾病, 或某一其它部下的疾病出現早期的顯示造成早期腎臟損傷。MA 的偵查在一次定期健康考試期間提供獸醫以一套新工具對幫助辨認這些情況。

  
背景
蛋白質交通橫跨glomerular 障礙主要介入白蛋白, 和被許多因素影響, 有: 損壞對glomerular 地下室膜、glomerular 血絲hemodynamics, 和內皮細胞的細胞官能不良。蛋白質出現在尿被接近筒形細胞作用並且影響, 因為這些細胞再吸收和通常貶低任一被過濾的蛋白質, 因此減少數額出現在尿。

MA 的同道會可能被分類像glomerular 和崗位glomerular 。MA 的Glomerular 起因出現從修改過的glomerular 膜滲透性, 發生或從glomerular 傷害或glomerular 血絲高血壓。白蛋白接著而來的漏出入glomerular 濾出液超出筒形容量再吸收或貶低剩餘白蛋白。MA 的崗位glomerular 起因有: 腎臟tubules 的疏忽貶低或再吸收被過濾的白蛋白(即, 深刻或慢性tubulointerstitial 疾病), 或更低的尿道的出血並且/或者炎症。

  
測量的MA
痕量白蛋白在尿由MA 查出測試(1 到30 mg/dL) 是在蛋白質之下極限由常規尿量油計查出。尿白蛋白含量在這個極限之上被分類作為公開proteinuria, 可能由測量經常查出protein:creatinine 比率。Antech 的最近被介紹的參考MA 測試是一特定種類immunoassay, correlates 非常嚴密與結果獲得以Heska ERD Healthscreen™ 尿檢在臨床研究中。

  
MA 的流行在狗和貓
幾項研究評估了MA 的流行。在一項研究中, MA 的流行在所有者沒有尋找的86 條狗獸醫關心是19%, 但是它是高的(36%) 在所有者尋找獸醫關心的159 條狗。在其它研究中, MA 的流行是30% 在狗被評估為衛生問題在獸醫教的醫院。3041 條由職員擁有的狗的第三項研究從350 個獸醫診所, 發現了整體MA 流行的24.7% 。有一種統計地重大交互作用在增長的年齡和MA 之間出現。例如, MA 是存在在7.4% 狗> 3 年年紀, 8.6% 狗3-5 年紀, 20% 狗6-8 年紀, 36% 狗9-11 年紀, 和49.1% 狗中12 年紀和更老。這些研究結果看上去支持glomerular 疾病的增加的發生的早先報告在更舊的狗。最後, MA 的整體流行1243 隻由職員擁有的貓從獸醫診所是24.5% 。相似與狗研究, 有一種統計地重大交互作用在增長的年齡和MA 之間出現在老年醫學的貓。例如, MA 是存在在35.5% 貓12-15 年紀和72.7% 貓中16-23 年紀。
MA 在早期腎臟和非腎臟疾病
測試對於MA 是早期腎臟病好顯示在狗和貓, 特別是那些以glomerular 疾病。在一項研究中, 12 條狗被感染Dirofilaria immitus L3 幼蟲。所有開發了MA 14-23 個月崗位傳染, 和巨大MA 增加的隨時間和在公開proteinuria 的發展之前。

尿白蛋白基因上並且被學習了在36 公狗以X 連接的遺傳性腎病, 一種迅速地進步glomerular 疾病, 和在20 條軟上漆的Wheaton 狗, 養殖在危險中為蛋白質丟失的腎病的發展。MA 出現證明是顯現出的腎病一個可靠的早期的標誌和在公開proteinuria 之前在兩項研究中。

非腎臟疾病 聯繫了MA 歸入類別: 1) 感染(即, Lyme 疾病, heartworm 疾病, FIP, FIV, FeLV); 2) 激動(即, peridontial 疾病、慢性癩、胰腺炎, 肝炎, IBD); 3) 造形術; 4) 新陳代謝(即, 糖尿病mellitus, 甲狀腺機能亢進); 並且5) 心血管混亂。作為不是所有這些疾病依照被表明可能導致永久腎臟損傷, MA 出現也許是瞬變, 應該謹慎地被解釋與臨床評估和其它診斷測試一起, 。

  
辨認腎臟損傷的起因以MA
在一項回顧展研究介入137 條狗與公開proteinuria, (白蛋白> 30 mg/dL) 並且glomerulopathy, 重大一致醫療課題histopathological 診斷中被辨認了在 ˜ 50% 狗中。在是消極的為蛋白質在常規尿蛋白質量油計但正面為MA 狗的一項最近研究中, 感染, 激動, 或造形術疾病被辨認了在56% 他們中。

  
繼續採取的行動在有MA 病人
第一步跟隨一個正面MA 測試將 尋找能是 包含的部下的疾病情況, 並且再評價最初診斷工作(即, 體格檢查、完全尿分析、清液化學外形、完全血液計數, 和血壓測量) 。在情況的成功的治療以後, 如果辨認, 考慮重覆MA 測試在1 個到3 個月。

如果MA 的可能的起因無法被辨認, 下步取決於巨大MA 。為重大正面MA 結果, 尿protein:creatinine 比率應該跑建立基礎線和監測疾病進步。如果測試結果是低或中等正面, 考慮重覆MA 測試在1 個到3 個月。如果程度MA 是穩定或減少在一名非azotemic 患者, 仔細的耐心監視(即, 體格檢查、尿分析、MA 測試和清液肌氨酸酐每6 個到12 個月) 被推薦。但是, 如果巨大MA 增加隨時間在一名非azotemic 患者, 考慮另外的診斷過程(即, 胸部和胃腸造影、胃腸ultrasonography 、血清學為地方流行傳染病, 腎臟切片檢查法), 和實施具體療法向腎臟病報告(即, 處方腎臟飲食延遲進步, 一點抗化劑) 。
Proteinuria has received renewed attention as a factor impacting the progression of cases of canine and feline chronic renal failure (CRF) and as a marker of early renal disease. Primary renal disease, as well as various infectious, inflammatory, metabolic and neoplastic disorders can damage glomerular vasculature and cause leakage of albumin into the glomerular filtrate, even in subclinical stages. Microalbuminuria (MA), the persistence of small amounts of albumin in the urine, is an early indicator of primary renal disease, lower urinary tract disease, or the presence of some other underlying disease causing early renal damage. Detection of MA during a routine health examination provides veterinarians with a new tool to help identify these situations.

  
Background
Protein traffic across the glomerular barrier primarily involves albumin, and is influenced by many factors, including: damage to glomerular basement membrane, glomerular capillary hemodynamics, and endothelial cell dysfunction. The appearance of protein in urine is also influenced by proximal tubular cell function, as these cells normally reabsorb and degrade any filtered protein, thereby reducing the amount appearing in urine.

Common causes of MA can be classified as glomerular and post-glomerular. Glomerular causes of MA arise from altered glomerular membrane permeability, occurring either from glomerular injury or glomerular capillary hypertension. The ensuing leakage of albumin into the glomerular filtrate exceeds tubular capacity to reabsorb or degrade the excess albumin. Post-glomerular causes of MA include: failure of renal tubules to degrade or reabsorb filtered albumin (e.g., acute or chronic tubulointerstitial disease), or hemorrhage and/or inflammation of the lower urinary tract.

  
Measuring MA
The trace amounts of albumin in urine detected by MA testing (1 to 30 mg/dL) are below the limits of protein detected by conventional urine dipsticks. Urine albumin concentrations above this limit are classified as overt proteinuria and can often be detected by measuring the protein:creatinine ratio. Antech's newly introduced reference MA test is a species-specific immunoassay, which correlates very closely to results obtained with the Heska ERD Healthscreen™ Urine test in clinical studies.

  
Prevalence of MA in Dogs and Cats
Several studies have evaluated the prevalence of MA. In one study, the prevalence of MA in 86 dogs whose owners were not seeking veterinary care was 19%, whereas it was higher (36%) in 159 dogs whose owners were seeking veterinary care. In another study, the prevalence of MA was 30% in dogs evaluated for health problems at a Veterinary Teaching Hospital. A third study of 3041 staff-owned dogs from over 350 veterinary clinics, found an overall MA prevalence of 24.7%. There was a statistically significant correlation between increasing age and the presence of MA. For example, MA was present in 7.4% of dogs > 3 years old, 8.6% of dogs 3-5 years of age, 20% of dogs 6-8 years of age, 36% of dogs 9-11 years of age, and 49.1% of dogs 12 years of age and older. These findings appear to support previous reports of an increased incidence of glomerular disease in older dogs. Lastly, the overall prevalence of MA of 1243 staff-owned cats from veterinary clinics was 24.5%. Similar to the dog study, there was a statistically significant correlation between increasing age and the presence of MA in geriatric cats. For example, MA was present in 35.5% of cats 12-15 years of age and 72.7% of cats 16-23 years of age.

MA in Early Renal and Non-Renal Diseases
Testing for MA has been a good indicator of early renal disease in dogs and cats, especially those with glomerular disease. In one study, 12 dogs were infected with Dirofilaria immitus L3 larvae. All of them developed MA 14-23 months post-infection, and the magnitude of MA increased over time and preceded the development of overt proteinuria.

Urine albumin was also studied in 36 male dogs with X-linked hereditary nephropathy, a rapidly progressive glomerular disease, and in 20 Soft-Coated Wheaton Terriers, a breed genetic><phropathy. The presence of MA was shown to be a reliable early marker of developing nephropathy and preceded overt proteinuria in both studies.

Non-renal diseases associated with MA fall into the categories of: 1) infectious (e.g., Lyme disease, heartworm disease, FIP, FIV, FeLV); 2) inflammatory (e.g., peridontial disease, chronic skin disease, pancreatitis, hepatitis, IBD); 3) neoplastic; 4) metabolic (e.g,, diabetes mellitus, hyperthyroidism); and 5) cardiovascular disorders. As not all of these diseases are likely to result in permanent renal damage, the presence of MA may be transient and should be interpreted cautiously along with the clinical assessment and other diagnostic testing, as indicated.

  
Identifying Causes of Renal Damage with MA
In a retrospective study involving 137 dogs with overt proteinuria, (albumin >30 mg/dL) and histopathological diagnosis of glomerulopathy, significant concurrent medical problems were identified in ˜ 50% of the dogs. In a recent study of dogs that were negative for protein on conventional urine protein dipsticks but positive for MA, infectious, inflammatory, or neoplastic diseases were identified in 56% of them.

  
Follow up on Patients with MA
The first step following a positive MA test is to look for underlying disease conditions that could be involved, and reassess the initial diagnostic work-up (e.g., physical examination, complete urinalysis, serum chemistry profile, complete blood count, and blood pressure measurement). After successful treatment of the condition, if identified, consider repeating the MA test in 1 to 3 months.

If a likely cause of MA cannot be identified, the next step depends on the magnitude of MA. For high positive MA results, a urine protein:creatinine ratio should be run to establish a baseline and monitor disease progression. If the test result is low or medium positive, consider repeating the MA test in 1 to 3 months. If the degree of MA is stable or decreasing in a non-azotemic patient, careful patient monitoring (e.g., physical examination, urinalysis, MA test and serum creatinine every 6 to 12 months) is recommended. However, if the magnitude of MA is increasing over time in a non-azotemic patient, consider additional diagnostic procedures (e.g., thoracic and abdominal radiography, abdominal ultrasonography, serology for regionally prevalent infectious diseases, renal biopsy), and implementing specific therapies reported to delay progression of renal disease (e.g., prescription renal diets, ACE inhibitors).[/size]
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minibabyqq 2006-12-20 04:15

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[size=12px][b][size=5][color=magenta]二甲氧基苯青黴素抗性Staphylococcus-aureus[/color][/size][/b]

METHICILLIN-RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS-AUREUS (MRSA)
  
背景
2,6 - 二甲氧基苯青黴素抗性 Staphylococcus-aureus (MRSA) 是主要醫院的病原生物在人的醫院和延長的關心設施。重要貢獻者對這病原生物的增長的重要性包括:

抵抗的樣式對大範圍的抗生素

病原生物葡萄球菌的機會主義的本質 aureus 是一個commensal 有機體在人。nasopharynx 是主要源泉的有機體, 雖然這可能並且運載其它站點, 包括小腸短文。研究表示, 30% 群眾有 葡萄球菌aureus 在他們的鼻子在任一點及時。

MRSA 張力不被認為更加內在地致病性比其它coagulase-positive 葡萄球菌spp 。

問題出現當MRSA 拓殖一個易受影響的主人(住醫院的患者, immunocompromised 或debilitated 個體) 並且隨後導致不對常規治療起反應的機會主義的傳染。

主要傳輸模式是直接聯繫。

  
抵抗機制
有抵抗2 個機制在2,6 - 二甲氧基苯青黴素抗性葡萄球菌(夫人) 有機體:

青黴素束縛的蛋白質: 所有青黴素和頭孢菌素(ss 酮) 要求捆綁對青黴素束縛的蛋白質(PBP) 位於細菌細胞壁創始他們的活動。MRSA 產物瑕疵低親合力PBP (PBP2.a) 由於mecA 基因的出現和 活化作用。

青黴素的和頭孢菌素的約束親合力對PBP2.a 是非常降低使它的能力失去能力打亂細胞壁綜合和使藥物無效。PBP2.a 表示在葡萄球菌有機體商談對所有青黴素和頭孢菌素的抵抗。

細胞壁變厚: MRSA 並且擁有使滲透由抗生素對多抗生素的困難的厚實的細胞壁, 商談的抵抗(不僅ss 酮) 。


  
角色在獸醫方面
MRSA 被報告了在動物中(主要在歐洲) 但被認為不凡在家養的寵物和很少導致疾病。當禮物, MRSAs 確切地是拓殖人的同樣有機體, 根據廣泛基因標記測試。研究迄今表明雖然MRSAs 可能被傳達從人給寵物, 他們不被認為一部分的正常拓殖的植物群並且瞬變地只拓殖家養的寵物。

  
測試對於2,6 - 二甲氧基苯青黴素抵抗
2,6 - 二甲氧基苯青黴素抵抗可能被測試使用任何beta lactamase 穩定的青黴素藥物(包括2,6 - 二甲氧基苯青黴素) 雖然oxacillin 最常用。mecA 基因是可誘導的因此在臨床實踐患者也許出現有敏感葡萄球菌當抗生素實際上導致抵抗。在實驗室裡這意味MRSAs 也許看上去敏感對oxacillin 在24 h 孵出以後但不是在48 h 以後。

Cefoxitin 是mecA 基因的一好inducer, 因此潛在的抵抗(若有) 更加可靠地看在第一24 h, 和當前是被推薦的測試。

乳汁膠合測試為PBP2.a 蛋白質成為一個定期分析用試樣在人的醫學作為最快的測試為MRSA 偵查。但是, 在獸醫病原生物的初步工作顯示它是較不可靠的作為2,6 - 二甲氧基苯青黴素抵抗顯示(參見頁) 。
MRSA 殖民化的證明在無症狀患者
鼻拖把為有氧文化被認為最佳的樣品。

  
MRSA 殖民化的治療
人們: 使用典型軟膏(Bactroban., mupiricin), 鼻, q 12 h 為5 d 。

寵物: 傳染與MRSA 在狗被報告了但他們潛在的角色作為一個水庫為人的傳染是有爭議的。所有MRSA 報告了在寵物迄今露出人的孤立genomic 署名, 表明人對寵物遷移。 葡萄球菌aureus 通常不是一個長期拓殖的有機體在寵物。如果發現在鼻或剝皮一隻無症狀寵物的拖把, 有機體是更加可能的瞬變病原生物從一個人的主人而不是一個真實的拓殖的有機體。所有人的證明和或 治療 在家庭是主要重要的事物。寵物的角色作為人的病原生物慢性載體不是好瞭解, 雖然慎重是明智的。寵物不應該允許直接聯繫與任何是immunocompromized 的個體直到寵物是被開化的陰性為MRSA 。做法未被展示是有效的在decontaminating 寵物。MRSA 載體狀態的剷除從人在家庭通常將是有效的在去除有機體從寵物。

  
2,6 - 二甲氧基苯青黴素抗性葡萄球菌(夫人)
更多重要的事物在獸醫方面是在主人適應的Staphylococcal 種類的潛力獲取抵抗樣式看在MRSA 。 葡萄球菌intermedius 是coagulase-positive commensal 葡萄球菌spp 。 狗和貓。

大多數 葡萄球菌intermedius 孤立在狗和貓不顯示2,6 - 二甲氧基苯青黴素抵抗。

文學報告關於 葡萄球菌intermedius 孤立從狗和貓和 2,6 - 二甲氧基苯青黴素 抵抗給了矛盾結果: 資料從田納西大學與57 葡萄球菌intermedius 孤立, 只2 是2,6 - 二甲氧基苯青黴素抗性, 雖然50% 有mecA 基因由PCR 查出測試, 建議, 它不可以被表達了。從伊利諾伊大學, 25 2,6 - 二甲氧基苯青黴素抗性 葡萄球菌intermedius 孤立, 23 有mecA 基因, 並且非2,6 - 二甲氧基苯青黴素抗性孤立沒有mecA 基因。進一步工作是需要的確定mecA 基因偵查的價值在獸醫孤立。

凝固酵素消極 葡萄球菌spp 。 孤立(譬如 葡萄球菌schleiferi) 在狗和貓比凝固酵素正面孤立看上去通常被查出以2,6 - 二甲氧基苯青黴素抵抗。這些通常被報告從似犬膿皮病。

  
治療選擇為夫人
缺乏對對任一b 酮抗生素的用途的臨床反應(即青黴素或頭孢菌素)—既使測試在試管內表明他們是敏感的—表明, 這些抗生素不應該被使用對待夫人傳染。

其它選擇:

TMS
比平均成功反對夫人, 但不是藥物改善共同地被推薦在獸醫方面, 由於在有害反應的潛力。

Quinolones

Vancomycin
幾不利: 非常毒害腎臟在狗; 需要是被執行的q 6 h 由IV 路線。

Zyvox (Linezolid)
抗生素(oxazalinozodes) 新家庭的成員; 能enterally 或腸外地被執行。約物動力學的評估在狗表明有效劑量是20-30 mg/kg q 12 h. 低毒力, 但非常昂貴的。使用只如果沒有其它選擇; 例如, 在多藥物抗性夫人Zyvox 是還有效的反對vancomycin 抗性腸球菌。
Background
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major nosocomial pathogen in human hospitals and extended care facilities. Important contributors to the increasing importance of this pathogen include:

Pattern of resistance to a wide range of antibiotics

Opportunistic nature of the pathogen Staph. aureus is a commensal organism in people. The nasopharynx is the major source of the organism, although it can also be carried in other sites, including the intestinal tract. Studies have shown that up to 30% of people have Staph. aureus in their nose at any point in time.

MRSA strains are not considered more intrinsically pathogenic than other coagulase-positive Staph. spp.

The problem arises when MRSA colonizes a susceptible host (hospitalized patient, immunocompromised or debilitated individuals) and subsequently causes an opportunistic infection that fails to respond to conventional treatment.

The major mode of transmission is direct contact.

  
Mechanism of resistance
There are 2 mechanisms of resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus (MRS) organisms:

Penicillin-binding proteins: All penicillins and cephalosporins (ß-lactams) require binding to a penicillin-binding protein (PBP) located in the bacterial cell wall to initiate their activity. MRSA produce a defective low-affinity PBP (PBP2a) due to the presence and activation of the mecA gene.

Penicillin's and Cephalosporin's binding affinity to PBP2a is very low disabling its ability to disrupt cell wall synthesis and rendering the drug ineffective. Expression of PBP2a on a Staphylococcus organism confers resistance to ALL penicillins and cephalosporins.

Cell-wall thickening: MRSA also possess a thick cell wall that makes penetration by antibiotics difficult, conferring resistance to multiple antibiotics (not just ß-lactams).


  
Role in Veterinary Medicine
MRSA has been reported in animals (mostly in Europe) but is considered uncommon in domestic pets and rarely causes disease. When present, MRSAs are exactly the same organism that colonize people, based on extensive genetic marker testing. Studies to date indicate that although MRSAs can be transmitted from people to pets, they are not considered part of the normal colonizing flora and only transiently colonize domestic pets.

  
Testing for Methicillin Resistance
Methicillin resistance can be tested using any of the beta-lactamase stable penicillin drugs (including methicillin) although oxacillin is most commonly used. The mecA gene is inducible so in clinical practice a patient may appear to have a sensitive Staph when in fact the antibiotic induces resistance. In the lab this means MRSAs may appear sensitive to oxacillin after 24 h incubation but not after 48 h.

Cefoxitin is a much better inducer of the mecA gene, so potential resistance (if present) is seen in the first 24 h more reliably, and is currently the recommended test.

Latex agglutination test for the PBP2a protein is becoming a more routine assay in hum>< pathogens has shown it to be less reliable as an indicator of methicillin resistance (see back page).
Identification of MRSA colonization in asymptomatic patients
Nasal swab for aerobic culture is considered the best sample.

  
Treatment of MRSA Colonization
People: Use topical ointment (Bactroban? mupiricin), nasally, q 12 h for 5 d.

Pets: Infections with MRSA in dogs have been reported but their potential role as a reservoir for human infection is controversial. All MRSA reported to date in pets bare the genomic signature of human isolates, indicating a human-to-pet migration. Staph. aureus is not normally a long-term colonizing organism in pets. If found in a nasal or skin swab of an asymptomatic pet, the organism is more likely a transient pathogen from a human host rather than a true colonizing organism. Identification and or treatment of all humans in the household is of primary concern. The role of pets as chronic carriers of human pathogens is not well understood, although prudence is wise. Pets should not be allowed direct contact with any individual who is immunocompromized until the pets have been cultured negative for MRSA. No procedure has been demonstrated to be effective in decontaminating pets. Eradication of the MRSA carrier state from people in the household usually will be effective in removing the organism from the pet.

  
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus (MRS)
Of more concern in veterinary medicine is the potential for host adapted Staphylococcal species to acquire the resistance patterns seen in MRSA. Staph. intermedius is the coagulase-positive commensal Staph. spp. of dogs and cats.

The vast majority of Staph. intermedius isolates in dogs and cats do not show methicillin resistance.

Literature reports on Staph. intermedius isolates from dogs and cats and methicillin resistance have given conflicting results: Data from University of Tennessee with 57 Staph. intermedius isolates, only 2 were methicillin resistant, although 50% had the mecA gene detected by PCR testing, suggesting that it may not have been expressed. From the University of Illinois, of 25 methicillin-resistant Staph. intermedius isolates, 23 had mecA gene, and the non-methicillin-resistant isolates did not have the mecA gene. Further work is needed to determine the value of mecA gene detection on veterinary isolates.

Coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. isolates (such as Staph. schleiferi) in dogs and cats appear to be more commonly detected with methicillin-resistance than do the coagulase positive isolates. These are usually reported from canine pyodermas.

  
Treatment Options for MRS
Lack of clinical response to use of any b-lactam antibiotic (e.g. penicillins or cephalosporins)—even if in vitro testing indicates that they are sensitive—indicates that these antibiotics should not be used to treat an MRS infection.

Other choices:

TMS
Better than average success against MRS, but not a drug commonly recommended in veterinary medicine, because of potential for adverse reactions.

Quinolones

Vancomycin
Several disadvantages: very nephrotoxic in dogs; needs to be administered q 6 h by IV route.

Zyvox (Linezolid)
Member of new family of antibiotics (oxazalinozodes); can be administered enterally or parenterally. Pharmacokinetic evaluation in dogs indicates the effective dose is 20-30 mg/kg q 12 h. Low toxicity, but very expensive. Use only if no other choice; for example, in multi-drug resistant MRS. Zyvox is also effective against vancomycin-resistant enterococcus.[/size]
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minibabyqq 2006-12-20 04:16

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[size=12px][b][size=5][color=magenta]犬出生病毒疾病[/color][/size][/b]

超過75% 出生小狗死亡發生在第一三個星期生活, 以這些的多數發生在第一星期從生理學, 先天和基因, 和環境狀況; 女性的行為; 並且細菌或病毒septicemias 。隨後而來的被推薦的農事和管理實踐為母狗在養殖之前, 在懷孕期間, 和在whelping 以後可能極大減少小狗必死。不幸地, 有一點研究被指揮在辨認和更好演講這個學科。

當傳染病明顯地組成唯一一個小部份小狗死亡在斷絕前, 最重要的病毒傳染在第一2-5 個星期生活期間是似犬herpesvirus 和周詳病毒犬(似犬parvovirus 1; CPV-1) 。似犬腺病毒1 、似犬慍怒和似犬coronavirus, 與細菌傳染一起, 也許還導致小狗死亡。

  
似犬HERPES 病毒
似犬herpesvirus (CHV) 是阿爾法herpesvirus 更加緊密地與似貓的herpesvirus 、馬herpesvirus-1 、pseudorabies 病毒和水痘zoster 病毒相關比與其它herpesviruses 。它被發現全世界在家養和野生狗, 但不是在其它種類。Seropositivity 率的> 30% 共同地看, 雖然一些被傳染的狗窩和100% 一樣高有抗體流行率沒有疾病的任何證據在被傳染的小狗。傳輸是由直接聯繫與感染體液, 因為CHV 是不穩定的在環境裡。像其它herpesviruses, 它變得潛在在主要傳染和階段性地是棚子, 主要在鼻或很少在生殖分泌物之後。

  
臨床標誌
疾病通常是無症狀在小狗暴露於CHV 在1-2 個星期年齡以後。但是, CHV 傳染一般是致命的在出生小狗(1-4 個星期年紀) 那缺乏母親免疫。這些小狗也許被傳染在段落期間通過他們的被傳染的水壩的誕生運河或, 通常, 由聯絡以水壩或其它狗的oronasal 分泌物在狗窩或家庭。被傳染的littermates, 或是流出病毒的鄰居狗, 可能還是傳染源。潛伏期是大約6-10 天, 並且病症的期間在新出生小狗是1-3 天, 以厭食、呼吸困難、痛苦在胃腸觸診, 不同格和一種典型的軟, 黃綠排匯物的標誌。那裡也許是漿液或出血性的鼻放電。Petechia 是共同在黏膜, 並且thrombocytopenia 也許發生。直腸溫度不被舉起。

偶爾地, CHV 也許導致導致胎兒或小狗死亡在誕生之後的在子宮內的傳染。病毒與狗並且被隔絕了以vaginitis 、結膜炎和呼吸病症。Asymtomatically 被傳染的狗保留潛在地傳染並且病毒可能排泄在大約一個星期在鼻或生殖分泌物, 和, 爾後, 在易變的間隔時間幾月甚至年。潛在病毒Recrudescence 也許被挑釁由新狗的重音(運動對新處所, 介紹) 或實驗性地從對免疫抑制的藥物的用途; 病毒棚子為大約一個星期。一旦病毒進入狗窩, 一般它傳播和起因無症狀傳染, 除了在懷孕水壩裡或非常幼小小狗從易受影響的母狗。這樣斷斷續續的流出保證生存CHV 在狗群和在養殖狗窩。CHV 免疫的發展以中立化的抗體的形式轉移到小狗通過胎盤和初乳。

懷孕狗被傳染在中間懷孕或以後, 也許放棄微弱或stillborn 小狗沒有簽到水壩; 胎兒小狗被傳染在晚懷孕期間也許看上去正常在生產, 但死在幾出生日之內。主要生殖傳染在成年女性為submucosal 淋巴腺濾泡的擴大描繪以易變的程度陰道充血和petechial 或ecchymotic 出血, 但沒有難受或異常的陰道放電。多泡狀損害並且被報告了在proestrus 期間, 但他們退步在發情期間。在男性, 相似的損害被報告了在陰莖和包皮的基地。自然地通常丟失了小狗與CHV 不總的被傳染的母狗, 但, 誕生對法線廢棄物隨後, 大概由於母親抗體的堅持低水平。很少, 小狗被暴露在2-3 星期年齡以後, 像成人狗, 能顯示中央緊張的標誌, 包括盲目性和聾據推測與腦損傷有關。出生小狗的高感受性對廣義傳染同粗劣的體溫調節、低體溫, 和他們殘缺不全地被開發的免疫系統聯繫在一起在早期的生活中。

當CHV 與狗tracheas 被隔絕了以呼吸疾病, 它不被認為呼吸病症, 與其它代理對比譬如Bordetella bronchiseptica, 似犬慍怒, 和似犬parainfluenza 病毒的重大起因。
病理學
病理變化發生在腎臟, 和包括petechial 或ecchymotic 出血和焦點壞死, 給腎臟一次古典有斑點或"畫筆出血" 出現。壞死和出血Multifocal 區域發生在幾種器官, 包括肺、肝臟、腦子和肚腑, 並且胎盤壞死發生在被傳染的懷孕女性。Meningoencephalitis 是共同, 並且淋巴結和脾臟被擴大。主要生殖傳染為lymphofollicular 損害和陰道充血描繪, 並且嚴厲地影響的母狗也許有ecchymotic submucosal 出血。

  
疫苗
撤消, 亞單位疫苗(Eurican Herpes 205, Merial 動物健康) 是可利用的在歐洲自2003 年以來。它不是可利用的在團結狀態。它包括被淨化的CHV 糖蛋白在一種礦物油溶劑。疫苗具體地被表明為母狗在懷孕期間並且二藥量被給, 首先在發情期間或早期的懷孕和第二個1-2 個星期在期望的日期whelping 之前。雖然它有少量undesirable 作用, 瞬變腫鼓也許發生在射入站點為一個星期。目前, 價值CHV 疫苗在減少出生小狗必死是未知的。

  
治療
抗病毒藥物是一般不成功的, 雖然vidarabine 被給在症狀之前起始也許是有用的。當抗病毒治療也許饒性命, 對中央神經系統和心臟的殘餘的損傷也許發生。成功在防止隨後CHV 病症在早先受影響的水壩裡達到了在幾個案件: 收穫血漿在最初的臨床傳染之時從被傳染的水壩或狗窩聯接堅定有anti-CHV 抗體, 採取小狗由剖腹產, 和perinatally (口頭) 並且然後給他們血漿的二藥量5--7 天以後(IP) 。這樣的治療是有效的只如果病毒未推斷。一旦病症顯現出在小狗, anti-CHV 血漿療法是無效的。

  
犬周詳病毒(似犬PARVOVIRUS-1)
這小似犬parvovirus (CAV-1) 1967 年第一次被隔絕了從健康軍事狗排匯物在德國。最緊密地與遲鈍的parvovirus 相關, CAV-1 被認為了non-pathogenic 20 年直到研究顯露了它的致病性為胎兒和新出生小狗。當大約40 個領域案件在世界各地被提供了, CPV-1 的血清學證據是普遍(50-70%) 在美國、日本, 和瑞士的狗群。

被傳染的小狗突然死在1-3 個星期充滿呼吸困厄年齡並且/或者嚴厲腹瀉之間。生存littermates 有隱晦的標誌, 即, 厭食、疏忽護理或吃, 和溫和的呼吸病症或腹瀉。Transplacental 傳染以胎兒死亡("褪色小狗," 病毒心肌炎), 和墮胎實驗性地被展示了。病毒肺炎是共同, 以豐富的包括身體在支氣管上皮細胞裡。另外的變化在護理小狗上包括胸線腫鼓和萎縮, 擴大的和軟的淋巴結, 和軟性, 漿糊狀凳子。診斷是困難的由於缺乏商業可利用的試劑。在具體抗體和WR3873-D 細胞是可利用的實驗室, 病毒可能由螢光免疫檢驗法欣然辨認或immunocytochemistry 。



More than 75% of neonatal puppy deaths occur in the first three weeks of life, with the majority of these occurring in the first week from physiologic, congenital and genetic, and environmental conditions; behavior of the female; and bacterial or viral septicemias. Following recommended husbandry and management practices for the bitch before breeding, during pregnancy, and after whelping can reduce puppy mortality significantly. Unfortunately, there is little research being directed at better identifying and addressing this discipline.

While infectious diseases apparently make up only a small portion of puppy deaths prior to weaning, the most important viral infections during the first 2-5 weeks of life are canine herpesvirus and the minute virus of canines (canine parvovirus 1; CPV-1). Canine adenovirus-1, canine distemper and canine coronavirus, along with bacterial infections, also may cause puppy deaths.

  
CANINE HERPES VIRUS
Canine herpesvirus (CHV) is an alpha-herpesvirus more closely related to feline herpesvirus, equine herpesvirus-1, pseudorabies virus and varicella-zoster virus than to other herpesviruses. It is found worldwide in domestic and wild dogs, but not in other species. Seropositivity rates of > 30% are commonly seen, although some infected kennels have antibody prevalence rates as high as 100% without the any evidence of disease in infected puppies. Transmission is by direct contact with infectious body fluids, since CHV is unstable in the environment. Like other herpesviruses, it becomes latent after a primary infection and is shed periodically, primarily in nasal or rarely in genital secretions.

  
Clinical signs
The disease is usually asymptomatic in puppies exposed to CHV after 1–2 weeks of age. However, CHV infection is generally fatal in neonatal pups (1–4 weeks old) that lack maternal immunity. These pups may be infected during passage through their infected dam's birth canal or, more commonly, by contact with oronasal secretions of the dam or other dogs in the kennel or home. Infected littermates, or neighboring dogs that are shedding virus, also can be sources of infection. The incubation period is about 6–10 days, and duration of illness in newborn pups is 1–3 days, with signs of anorexia, dyspnea, pain upon abdominal palpation, incoordination and a typical soft, yellow-green feces. There may be serous or hemorrhagic nasal discharge. Petechia are common on the mucous membranes, and thrombocytopenia may occur. Rectal temperatures are not elevated.

Occasionally, CHV may cause in utero infections that result in the death of fetuses or pups shortly after birth. The virus also has been isolated from dogs with vaginitis, conjunctivitis and respiratory illness. Asymtomatically infected dogs remain latently infected and virus can be excreted for about one week in nasal or genital secretions, and, thereafter, at variable intervals for several months or even years. Recrudescence of latent virus may be provoked by stress (movement to new quarters, introduction of new dogs) or experimentally from use of immunosuppressive drugs; the virus sheds for about one week. Once the virus enters a kennel, it generally spreads and causes asymptomatic infections, except in pregnant dams or very young pups from susceptible bitches. Such intermittent shedding assures the survival of CHV in the dog population and in breeding kennels. Development of CHV immunity in the form of neutralizing antibodies is transferred to pups via the placenta and colostrum.

Pregnant dogs infected at mid-gestation or later, may abort weak or stillborn pups with no signs in the dam; fetal pups infected during late gestation may appear normal at parturition, but die within a few days of birth. Primary genital infections in adult females are characterized by enlargement of the submucosal lymphoid follicles with variable degrees of vaginal hyperemia and petechial or ecchymotic hemorrhages, but without discomfort or unusual vaginal discharges. Vesicular lesions also have been reported during proestrus, but they regress during estrus. In males, similar lesions have been reported over the base of the penis and prepuce. Naturally infected bitches that have lost pups with CHV usually, but not always, give birth to normal litters subsequently, probably because of persistent low levels of maternal antibody. Rarely, pups exposed after 2–3 weeks of age, like adult dogs, can show central nervous signs, including blindness and deafness presumably related to brain damage. The high susceptibility of neonatal pups to generalized infection has been associated with poor thermoregulation, low body temperatures, and their incompletely developed immune systems in early life.

While CHV has been isolated from tracheas of dogs with respiratory disease, it is not considered a significant cause of respiratory illness, in contrast to other agents such as Bordetella bronchiseptica, canine distemper, and canine parainfluenza virus.

Pathology
Pathological changes occur in the kidneys, and consist of petechial or ecchymotic hemorrhages and focal necrosis, giving the kidneys a classical speckled or "paint brush hemorrhage" appearance. Multifocal areas of necrosis and hemorrhage occur in several organs, including the lung, liver, brain and intestine, and placental necrosis occurs in infected pregnant females. Meningoencephalitis is common, and lymph nodes and spleens are enlarged. Primary genital infections are characterized by lymphofollicular lesions and vaginal hyperemia, and severely affected bitches may have ecchymotic submucosal hemorrhages.

  
Vaccine
An inactivated, subunit vaccine (Eurican Herpes 205, Merial Animal Health) has been available in Europe since 2003. It is not available in the Unites States. It consists of purified CHV glycoproteins in a mineral oil solvent. The vaccine is specifically indicated for bitches during pregnancy and two doses are given, first during estrus or early pregnancy and the second 1–2 weeks before the expected date of whelping. Although it has few undesirable effects, transient edema may occur at the injection site for up to one week. Presently, the value CHV vaccines in reducing neonatal puppy mortality is unknown.

  
Treatment
Antiviral drugs have been generally unsuccessful, although vidarabine given before the onset of symptoms may be helpful. While antiviral treatment may spare life, residual damage to the central nervous system and heart may occur. Success in preventing subsequent CHV illness in previously affected dams has been achieved in a few cases by: harvesting plasma at the time of the initial clinical infection from infected dams or kennel mates determined to have anti-CHV antibodies, taking the puppies by cesarean section, and giving them two doses of the plasma perinatally (orally) and then 5–-7 days later (IP). Such treatment is effective only if virus has not generalized. Once illness develops in pups, anti-CHV plasma therapy is ineffective.

  
MINUTE VIRUS OF CANINES (CANINE PARVOVIRUS-1)
This small canine parvovirus (CAV-1) was first isolated in 1967 from the feces of healthy military dogs in Germany. Most closely related to bovine parvovirus, CAV-1 was considered non-pathogenic for 20 years until research revealed its pathogenicity for the fetus and newborn pups. While about 40 field cases have been documented throughout the world, serologic evidence of CPV-1 is widespread (50-70%) in the dog populations of USA, Japan, and Switzerland.

Infected pups die suddenly between 1–3 weeks of age with respiratory distress and/or severe diarrhea. Surviving littermates have vague signs, e.g., anorexia, failure to nurse or eat, and mild respiratory illness or diarrhea. Transplacental infections with fetal deaths ("fading pups," viral myocarditis), and abortion have been demonstrated experimentally. Viral pneumonia is common, with abundant inclusion bodies in bronchial epithelial cells. Additional changes in nursing pups include thymic edema and atrophy, enlarged and soft lymph nodes, and soft, pasty stools. Diagnosis is difficult because of the lack of commercially available reagents. In laboratories where specific antibodies and WR3873-D cells are available, the virus can be readily identified by immunofluorescence or immunocytochemistry.[/size]
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