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如意輪 2007-11-15 09:22 PM

大英博物館 西方宗教藝術巡禮 更新:海格力斯(Heracles) 2007-12-8

版主建構帖 (work-in-progress)

[size=2][color=#000080]大英博物館 西方宗教藝術巡禮[/color][/size]

[[i] 本帖最後由 如意輪 於 2007-12-8 02:56 AM 編輯 [/i]]

如意輪 2007-11-15 09:39 PM

留為目錄

如意輪 2007-11-15 09:45 PM

[img]http://i220.photobucket.com/albums/dd46/Western_Religional_art/TheBorradaileTriptychl.jpg[/img]


[img]http://i220.photobucket.com/albums/dd46/Western_Religional_art/TheBorradaileTriptychclosedl.jpg[/img]



[size=3][color=darkslategray]The Borradaile Triptych[/color][/size]
[size=3][size=2][color=darkslateblue]Three hinged ivory panels depicting the Crucifixion of Christ and saints[/color][/size]
[/size][size=3][/size]
Height: 270.000 mm (centre panel)
Width: 157.000 mm (centre panel)
Height: 270.000 mm (centre panel)
Width: 157.000 mm (centre panel)
Thickness: 10.000 mm (leaves)
Bequeathed by Charles Borradaile


[i][font=Times New Roman]Byzantine, 10th century AD
From Constantinople (modern Istanbul, Turkey)[/font][/i]


This triptych is named after Charles Borradaile, who purchased it in 1905/6 and later bequeathed it to The British Museum. It was said to have come from a convent in Rheims, northern France. The figures on the triptych are beautifully carved in high relief in the elongated fashion typical of tenth-century carving. The ivory is exceptionally well-preserved.

The central panel depicts Christ on the Cross, flanked by the Virgin Mary and St John the Evangelist. The archangels Michael and Gabriel are positioned to either side of Christ's head. A Greek inscription below the cross arms translates 'Behold thy Son; Behold thy Mother' (John 19;26-7). Pairs of saints, all carefully identified by inscriptions, occupy the registers on the leaves to the sides. Seven of the saints wear long robes and bear crosses, or in one case, a scroll. The three military saints, George, Theodore Stratilates and Eustathius, can be identified by their swords and spears. Like the larger figures in the central panel, the saints all have pearled haloes.

When the triptych is closed, it is revealed that the outsides of the two leaves are also deeply carved. Each leaf bears a cross with a Greek inscription which translates 'Jesus Christ victorious'. Small roundels with busts of saints decorate the centres and terminals of the crosses.

D. Buckton (ed.), [i]Byzantium: treasures of Byzant[/i] (London, The British Museum Press, 1994)

如意輪 2007-11-15 09:55 PM

[img]http://i220.photobucket.com/albums/dd46/Western_Religional_art/archangel.jpg[/img]
Ivory panel showing an archangel


[size=3][color=darkslategray]Ivory panel showing an archangel[/color][/size]

[size=2][color=darkslateblue]An ivory leaf from a Byzantine diptych[/color][/size]

Length: 428.000 mm
Width: 143.000 mm
Thickness: 9.000 mm
M&ME OA 9999

Byzantine, about AD 525-550
From Constantinople (modern Istanbul, Turkey)

This exceptionally beautiful leaf is the largest surviving Byzantine ivory panel. It depicts an archangel poised at the top of a flight of steps. He holds a staff in his left hand and a large orb in his right, surmounted by a jewelled cross. His wings and body overlap fluted columns with composite capitals and an arch richly decorated with acanthus leaves. A scallop shell niche below the arch contains a ribboned wreath around a cross. The size of the panel is so great that it exceeded the width of the tusk from which it was carved, resulting in angled corners on the left-hand side.

The Greek inscription at the top may be translated as: 'Receive the suppliant before you, despite his sinfulness'. The magnificence of the panel suggests it was carved in Constantinople, perhaps as an imperial commission. The style of carving relates to other diptychs carved in the 520s, and the leaf may have been associated with the accession of the Byzantine emperor Justinian I in AD 527. If this was the case, the angel may have been presenting the orb to the emperor, who could have been depicted on the panel that originally formed the other half of the diptych.

D. Buckton (ed.), [i]Byzantium: treasures of Byzant[/i] (London, The British Museum Press, 1994)
A. Cutler, 'The making of the Justinian diptychs', [i]Byzantion[/i], 54 (1984), pp. 75-115

[[i] 本帖最後由 如意輪 於 2007-11-24 01:49 AM 編輯 [/i]]

如意輪 2007-11-15 10:01 PM

[IMG]http://i220.photobucket.com/albums/dd46/Western_Religional_art/Panelfromanivorycasket.jpg[/IMG]

Height: 7.500 cm
Width: 9.900 cm
M&ME 1856,6-23,6

[size=3][color=darkslategray][b]Panel from an ivory casket: the empty Sepulchre[/b][/color][/size]

[size=2][color=darkslateblue]The tomb of Christ[/color][/size]

Late Roman, AD 420-30
Probably made in Rome


This plaque is one of four, which though now separated, must originally have been mounted on the four sides of a small square casket. Each is carved with scenes from Christ's Passion. The other panels depict the Christ carrying the Cross, The Crucifixion and Doubting Thomas.

The central focus of this panel is Christ's tomb, carefully depicted as a square building with columns at the corners and a brick drum pierced by windows and with a tiled roof. The heavy doors have lion-head door knockers. The panels of the undamaged door have miniature scenes of the raising of Lazarus and a mourning woman, echoing the theme of the larger panel. The doors are ajar, allowing us to see into the deep space of the tomb and the empty sarcophagus.

Two sleeping soldiers flank the sepulchre, their feet resting casually on its base and their bodies slumped against their shields. Their bodies overlap those of two hunched women, Mary Magdalene and Mary, mother of James, each wrapped in a heavy cloak and with her hand raised to her face.

The ivory is superbly carved in very high relief, with the foreshortened shields receding into the background and the knees of the soldiers thrust towards the viewer. The individualized positions of the figures and the dramatic contrast in scale between the figures and buildings bring this conventional scene to life.

K. Weitzmann (ed.), [i]Age of spirituality: Late Anti[/i] (New York, 1979)
D. Buckton (ed.), [i]Byzantium: treasures of Byzant[/i] (London, The British Museum Press, 1994)

如意輪 2007-11-15 10:08 PM

[IMG]http://i220.photobucket.com/albums/dd46/Western_Religional_art/ChristcarryingtheCross.jpg[/IMG]
Height: 7.500 cm
Width: 9.800 cm
M&ME 1856,6-23,4


[size=3][color=darkslategray][b]Panel from an ivory casket: Christ carrying the Cross[/b][/color][/size]

Late Roman, AD 420-30
Probably made in Rome


[font=Times New Roman]This plaque is one of four, which though now separated, must originally have been mounted on the four sides of a small square casket. Each is carved with scenes from Christ's Passion. The other panels depict the Crucifixion, the empty Sepulchre and Doubting Thomas.[/font]
[font=Times New Roman][/font]
[font=Times New Roman]This plaque brilliantly condenses three different scenes into a single unit. On the left, Pontius Pilate, seated on a throne on a raised platform, washes his hands in water poured by a male servant. In the centre Christ strides forward with the cross, accompanied by a Roman soldier. The soldier appears to be gesturing towards Peter who is seated before a brazier. He leans backwards from the cross and stretches out his hand toward Christ. In the background a woman points at him accusingly. Perched on a ledge above is a rooster, who signifies the fulfilment of Christ's prophecy to Peter: 'before the cock crow, thou shalt deny me thrice' (Matthew 26:34).[/font]
[font=Times New Roman][/font]
[font=Times New Roman]Certain details carved on the plaques, such as the brazier on this scene and the sack of coins on the following, have parallels in illustrated manuscripts. It is thought therefore that a Passion text served as a model for these carvings.[/font]
[font=Times New Roman][/font]
[font=Times New Roman]The exact use of such beautifully decorated small boxes is not known. A small one like this may have been for private use, while other, larger examples were certainly ecclesiastical.[/font]

K. Weitzmann (ed.), [i]Age of spirituality: Late Anti[/i] (New York, 1979)

如意輪 2007-11-15 10:13 PM

[img]http://i220.photobucket.com/albums/dd46/Western_Religional_art/HolyThornReliquaryofJeanducdeBerry.jpg[/img]

Height: 30.500 cm
Weight: 1404.650 g
Bequeathed by Baron Ferdinand de Rothschild
M&ME Waddesdon Bequest 67

[size=3][color=darkslategray][b]The Holy Thorn Reliquary of Jean, duc de Berry[/b][/color][/size]

Paris, France, about AD 1400-10

[font=Verdana]This reliquary was made to house a relic of the Crown of Thorns, the wreath of thorns placed on the head of Jesus Christ at his crucifixion. The thorn is displayed behind a crystal window and is identified by a Latin inscription: 'Ista est una spinea corone / Domine nostri ihesu cristi' ('This is a thorn from the crown of Our Lord Jesus Christ').
The reliquary is a wonderful example of the art of [i]émail en ronde bosse[/i]. Pearls and rubies are arranged alternately around the compartment which holds the relic. Two sapphires are incorporated into the design: one at the apex and the other used as a mount for the thorn itself.

A dramatic scene of the Last Judgement surrounds the relic, featuring the Virgin Mary (to the left), St John the Baptist (to the right) and Christ (centre). Around the outside are arranged figures of the twelve Apostles with God the Father at the top. At the bottom, four angels sound trumpets as the dead emerge from their tombs.
Behind the figure of God is a gold relief of the Holy Face on the cloth of St Veronica, a fragment of which may have been held in the secondary compartment at the reverse. This is protected by two gold doors decorated with reliefs of Saints Christopher and Michael. The doors are delicately stippled, suggesting that they too were once enamelled. A sensational story supports this suggestion.

When the reliquary came to the British Museum in 1898, its full history was unknown. However, it had been on loan from the Geistliche Schatzkammer, Vienna to the 1860 Exhibition. After the exhibition it was sent with four other items to the workshop of Salomon Weininger for restoration. Weininger made fakes of each item to take the place of the originals, which he sold. Only in 1959, when the fake reliquary was brought to London and compared with the original, was the truth established. The fake reliquary has enamelled doors on the reverse - a detail which a forger would not invent - indicating that the original enamel must have been lost or removed between 1860 and 1898, when it came to the British Museum.

Who was the original owner of this outstanding object? Research has indicated that the two enamelled plaques on the front of the castellated base relate to Jean, duc de Berry (1340-1416). An inventory dating from 1401-3 describing the possessions of the Duc de Berry mentions a grand, imperial crown set with four Holy Thorns which was broken up and its components re-used.

H. Tait, [i]Catalogue of the Waddesdon Beq[/i] (London, The British Museum Press, 1986)[/font]

[[i] 本帖最後由 如意輪 於 2007-11-15 10:14 PM 編輯 [/i]]

如意輪 2007-11-16 09:45 AM

[img]http://i220.photobucket.com/albums/dd46/Western_Religional_art/Carvedivoryleaffromadiptych.jpg[/img]


[size=4][color=darkslategray][b]Carved ivory leaf from a diptych[/b][/color][/size]

The apotheosis of a great orator

Roman, around AD 402

This splendid leaf is one of the last great commissions of pagan art in Rome before the triumph of Christianity. The scroll at the top bears a monogram probably reading 'SYMMACHORUM', a reference to one of the leading families in Rome. The Symmachi family probably commissioned this ivory panel to commemorate Quintus Aurelius Symmachus (about 340-402), the greatest orator of his day, a prominent pagan and opponent of Christianity.
The ivory vividly depicts three different events. At the centre-right a mature bearded man in a senatorial toga sits beneath a gabled roof supported on columns. This ornate structure is borne on a wheeled carriage drawn by four elephants with their riders, holding prods and elephant-rattles. The figure is possibly intended to represent Q. Aurelius Symmachus himself, who served in the highest public offices of pro-consul and consul.

The next scene shows his death, symbolized by a draped funeral pyre surmounted by a [i]quadriga[/i] (four-horsed chariot). Two eagles, representing the soul, fly upwards from the pyre. On the upper section the famous man is carried into heaven by winged figures who personify the winds; they pass an arc with signs of the zodiac and are watched by Helios, the sun god. At the summit five ancestors welcome his arrival and apotheosis (elevation to divine status).

D. Buckton (ed.), [i]Byzantium: treasures of Byzant[/i] (London, The British Museum Press, 1994)

[[i] 本帖最後由 如意輪 於 2007-11-16 09:55 AM 編輯 [/i]]

如意輪 2007-11-16 09:51 AM

[IMG]http://i220.photobucket.com/albums/dd46/Western_Religional_art/AdorationoftheMagi.jpg[/IMG]

Length: 21.700 cm
Width: 12.400 cm
Thickness: 1.200 cm
M&ME 1904,7-2,1

[font=Verdana][size=3][color=darkslategray][b]Ivory plaque with the Adoration of the Magi[/b][/color][/size][/font]

[size=2][color=darkslateblue]Relief panel from the centre of a 5-part diptych[/color][/size]

Early Byzantine, early 6th century AD
From the Eastern Mediterranean region

This panel presents a solemn hieratic image of the Adoration of Christ. The Virgin Mary, shown with wide staring eyes and larger in scale than the other figures, dominates the composition. The Christ child, held between her legs, makes the gesture of blessing. Beside the Virgin are an angel holding a cross-staff and the three Magi ('Wise Men') dressed in Oriental costume - tight trousers, short tunics and Phrygian caps. They present their gifts as sacred offerings with veiled hands.

A narrow panel at the bottom depicts the Nativity. At the left the Virgin reclines on a mattress; on the right the child bound in swaddling clothes appears in a masonry manger surrounded by the traditional symbols of the ox, ass and star of Bethlehem. The woman kneeling before him represents the midwife Salome, a character from the apocryphal (unofficial) gospels.

The formal style and symmetry of the Adoration scene on this ivory may derive from the lost mosaics of the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem. This presentation anticipates the development of purely devotional images characteristic of later Byzantine art. On the reverse of the ivory are nine lines of a prayer in Greek. It was written in a characteristic twelfth-century hand, indicating the ivory was still in use at that time.
K. Weitzmann (ed.), [i]Age of spirituality: Late Anti[/i] (New York, 1979)

如意輪 2007-11-21 06:07 PM

[img]http://i220.photobucket.com/albums/dd46/Western_Religional_art/IconofTriumphofOrthodoxy.jpg[/img]

Length: 39.000 cm
Width: 31.000 cm
Purchased with the assistance of the National Art Collections Fund (Eugene Cremetti Fund)


[size=2][color=DarkSlateGray][b][u]Icon of Triumph of Orthodoxy[/u][/b][/color][/size]

Celebrating the restoration of Holy Images at the end of Iconoclasm

Byzantine, around AD 1400
From Constantinople (modern Istanbul, Turkey)

The overthrow of Iconoclasm in AD 843 was seen as a triumph for the orthodox branch of the Christian church. This icon portrays the annual Festival of Orthodoxy celebrated on the first Sunday in Lent. It was painted in egg tempera on gold leaf on a wooden panel covered with gesso and linen.
The icon of the Virgin Mary Hodegetria appears at the centre of the top register on a stand draped with red and gold cloth. This, the most famous icon of Constantinople, was believed to have been painted by the Evangelist St Luke, and thus to be an actual life portrait of the Virgin. The regent Empress Theodora and her young son, the emperor Michael III (reigned AD 842-67) appear on the left, wearing jewelled crowns and robes. On the right is the Patriarch Methodios (in office from 843-7) together with three monks.
The lower register depicts eleven saints and bishops, some of whom triumphantly display icons. All were active iconophiles, such as the female figure on the far left, identified as St Theodosia of Constantinople who, at the outbreak of Iconoclasm, reputedly tried to save the famous icon of Christ placed over the Chalke (Bronze) Gate of the Imperial Palace.
D. Buckton (ed.), [i]Byzantium: treasures of Byzant[/i] (London, The British Museum Press, 1994)

如意輪 2007-11-21 06:12 PM

[img]http://i220.photobucket.com/albums/dd46/Western_Religional_art/IconwithfourChurchfeasts.jpg[/img]
Height: 38.800 cm
Width: 13.000 cm
Length: 38.000 cm

[color=DarkSlateGray][b][u][size=3]Icon with four Church feasts[/size][/u][/b][/color]

The Nativity, Annunciation, Baptism and Transfiguration

Byzantine, AD 1310-20
From Constantinople (modern Istanbul, Turkey) or Thessaloniki, Greece

The icon consists of two curved vertical panels, each carved with two arched compartments. The scenes from the life of Christ shown in the compartments are celebrated as Feast days of the Christian Church. At the top left is the Annunciation, with Mary in an architectural setting receiving the archangel Gabriel. The upper right compartment shows the Nativity in a rocky landscape. Mary rests on a bright red bed with the infant Christ in a manger above her; angels and shepherd celebrate above, while below two midwives bathe the infant, watched by Joseph. At the lower left Christ, standing in the River Jordan, is baptised by St John the Baptist; Angels with towels attend Him. On the final compartment He ascends in a rayed mandorla, flanked by Elijah and Moses and with Peter, James and John fallen to ground before him.
This icon was brought to England in 1851, together with Syriac manuscripts from the monastery of St Mary Deipara in Egypt. It was originally in the collection of the Department of Manuscripts (now part of the British Library), but was later transferred to what was then known as the Department of Antiquities. It is listed as the first acquisition in the National Icon Collection of the United Kingdom.

D. Buckton (ed.), [i]Byzantium: treasures of Byzant[/i] (London, The British Museum Press, 1994)

如意輪 2007-11-21 06:19 PM

[img]http://i220.photobucket.com/albums/dd46/Western_Religional_art/Portablealtar.jpg[/img]

[img]http://i220.photobucket.com/albums/dd46/Western_Religional_art/Portablealtarreverse.jpg[/img]

[b][size=2][color=darkslategray][/color][/size][/b]
[size=2][color=darkslategray][size=1]Height: 35.400 cm
Width: 25.100 cm[/size]
[size=1][/size]
[size=1]M&ME 1902,6-25,1[/size]

[/color][/size][b][size=2][color=darkslategray][u]Portable altar
[/u][/color][/size][/b]
With relics of Christian saints

Medieval, around AD 1200
From Hildesheim, Lower Saxony, Germany

The altar is made from a combination of metalwork, ivory carving and miniature painting that was highly favoured by artists of Lower Saxony in the eleventh century. The altar-stone, once thought to be porphyry, is more likely to be a variety of Purbeck marble. It is mounted in gilt copper which is engraved with the four symbols of the Evangelists and Saints Peter, Andrew, Stephen and Lawrence. Above the stone there is an ivory of the Crucifixion and below it the Virgin and Child enthroned with two bishop saints. To either side is placed a painted miniature on vellum under crystal, of Saints Godehard (right) and Bernard (left), both bishops of Hildesheim.

Beneath the ivory of the Virgin and Child is an inscription THIDERICVS. ABBAS. III. DEDIT, which reveals the identity of the patron as Theodoric, the third abbot of his name. This would seem to signify Abbot Theodoric who was abbot at Godehardiklosters, Hildesheim, between 1181 and 1204.

The reverse of the altar is inscribed with the names of forty saints in whose honour it was dedicated. In a cavity beneath the stone slab are relics of these saints, wrapped in textiles and labelled. Analysis has shown that the oldest textiles are likely to date from the ninth or tenth century, whereas the most recent may date from as late as the nineteenth. The relics themselves have been examined and consist mainly of bone but with hair (labelled as coming from St John the Evangelist) and semi-precious stones (associated with St Christopher).
M. Brandt (ed.), [i]Stadt im Wandel - Kunst und Ku[/i] (Hildesheim, 1985)

如意輪 2007-11-21 06:26 PM

[img]http://i220.photobucket.com/albums/dd46/Western_Religional_art/InteriorNativityandAnnunciation.jpg[/img]

Interior, Nativity and Annunciation

[img]http://i220.photobucket.com/albums/dd46/Western_Religional_art/ps340255_l.jpg[/img]
View of opened pendant, exterior
[img]http://i220.photobucket.com/albums/dd46/Western_Religional_art/ps340256_l.jpg[/img]
View of closed pendant
[img]http://i220.photobucket.com/albums/dd46/Western_Religional_art/ps340258_l.jpg[/img]
Scenes from the life of Christ

[size=3][b][color=DarkSlateGray]Reliquary pendant of the Holy Thorn[/color][/b][/size]

A thorn from Christ's crown?

Medieval, around AD 1340
From Paris, France

This reliquary is made of gold, with an exterior of amethystine crystal. The three principal leaves are richly enamelled in [i]basse-taille[/i] ('shallow cut'), with scenes divided into two registers by a decorative band. The scenes depicted represent episodes from the life of Christ, with one exception. In the lower register of one leaf a barefoot king kneels with his queen, praying to the Virgin and Child. It is likely that they commissioned the piece.
One side of the central leaf is not enamelled; it contains instead a miniature painted on vellum of the Nativity and the Annunciation to the Shepherds. It is very faded but when freshly painted it may have more closely resembled the brilliant colour of the enamels.

The purpose of the miniature is to conceal a relic of the Holy Thorn. The relic compartment is divided into seven, the central one reserved for a thorn said to come from the crown of thorns that Christ wore on the Cross. The thorn is still in place, with a small golden crown placed above it.

Who are the royal couple who ordered the reliquary to be made? There is no evidence to suggest their identities apart from the likely date of the object and its probable place of manufacture. The treatment of the figures of both the enamels and the illumination suggests a date slightly before the middle of the fourteenth century. The enamelling is very much in the fashion of Parisian metalworkers at this time. Given these stylistic attributions, the most promising candidates are Philip VI (reigned 1328-50) and his wife Jeanne de Bourgogne.
F. Baron, [i]Les fastes du Gothique: le siè[/i] (Grand Palais, Paris, 1981)

如意輪 2007-11-21 06:38 PM

[IMG]http://i220.photobucket.com/albums/dd46/Western_Religional_art/Goldandenamelreliquarycross.jpg[/IMG]

[IMG]http://i220.photobucket.com/albums/dd46/Western_Religional_art/Goldandenamelreliquarycrossback.jpg[/IMG]

[size=3][color=darkslategray][b][u]Gold and enamel reliquary cross[/u][/b][/color][/size]

The Mother of God and Saints

Byzantine, early 11th century AD
Probably from Constantinople (modern Istanbul, Turkey)

This superb small pendant is said to have been found on the site of the Great Palace at Constantinople. It formed part of the famous collection of Adolphe Stoclet before being purchased by The British Museum.
The cross is hinged at the top and bottom; the cap on one end of the top hinge unscrews so the two sides can be opened to reveal a relic, possibly a fragment from the True Cross. The enamel sheet from the front of the plaque is missing, but the reverse is well-preserved. It depicts the Virgin Mary standing with Her hands before her chest in an attitude of prayer. To her right is a bust of St Basil the Great and to the left a bust of St Gregory Thaumaturgus. Greek inscriptions identify all of the figures.

The enamel on this cross is known by a German term, [i]Senkschmelz[/i] ('sunken enamel') where figures are silhouetted against bare metal, appearing to float on a gold ground. The colours are a rich mixture of translucent blues, greens and browns with opaque whites, blacks, blues and reds.

如意輪 2007-11-21 06:42 PM

[IMG]http://i220.photobucket.com/albums/dd46/Western_Religional_art/Goldandenamelpendantreliquary.jpg[/IMG]

[IMG]http://i220.photobucket.com/albums/dd46/Western_Religional_art/Goldandenamelpendantreliquary2.jpg[/IMG]

[b][size=3][color=darkslategray]Gold and enamel pendant reliquary[/color][/size][/b]


St George and St Demetrius


Byzantine, 13th century AD
From Thessaloniki, Greece


Three inscriptions identify the figures and history behind this complex small box. On the base is a medallion enamelled with a half-length bust of St George. He is identified by red letters and surrounded by a Greek inscription which translates, '[The wearer] prays that you will be his fiery defender in battles'.

Around the rim of the box is another Greek inscription, also in enamel: 'Anointed with your blood and myrrh'. This refers to the relics of St Demetrius, who is shown on the other side of the box, lying in his shrine in the church of his name at Thessaloniki. There are parallels in thirteenth-century Crusader art for the figure of St Demetrius. The enamelled panel with the saint is actually a hinged flap which opens to reveal a gold effigy of the saint and a place for his relics.

A much later inscription, in Georgian, is engraved on the annular gold section of the lid. It was added in the mid-eighteenth century and suggests that the reliquary once contained a fragment of the True Cross which belonged to St Kethevan, a Georgian queen martyred by the Persian ruler Shah Abbas I in 1624.

如意輪 2007-11-21 06:47 PM

[img]http://i220.photobucket.com/albums/dd46/Western_Religional_art/MarblebustofHercules.jpg[/img]

[size=4][color=darkslategray]Marble bust of Hercules[/color][/size]

Roman, 2nd century AD
Said to have been found at the foot of Mount Vesuvius, Campania, Italy


The bust represents the Greek hero Herakles (Roman Hercules). The head closely resembles that of the 'Herakles Farnese', a colossal marble statue that shows the hero resting on his club after he obtained the apples of the Hesperides. The Farnese statue was a Roman copy after a bronze original by the renowned late classical Greek sculptor Lysippos. It had been discovered in 1546 and was one of the most famous ancient marbles in Rome.

This bust was acquired by the collector Sir William Hamilton (1730-1803), then British Envoy to the Royal court at Naples. It was skilfully restored and set into a modern bust emulating the pose of the Farnese Hercules by the British sculptor Joseph Nollekens (1737-1823). Nollekens established himself as dealer and restorer of antiquities during his nine-year stay in Rome from 1761 to 1770.

Hamilton presented the bust together with a number of other antiques to the British Museum in 1776. He clearly rated it highly, as the following letter attests:

'Do let the Hercules bust be well placed, [Gavin] Hamilton declares it better than that of the Farnese. The presents I have made, & have further to make to the Museum since my return here have, I am sure, cost me near £300, thou' the old dons do not as much as thank me when I send a work of art. They are delighted with a spider or a shell, & send me many thanks for such presents. I do not care, it is the honour of the Hamiltonian collection that spurs me on.'

[[i] 本帖最後由 如意輪 於 2007-11-24 11:27 AM 編輯 [/i]]

如意輪 2007-11-21 06:50 PM

[img]http://i220.photobucket.com/albums/dd46/Western_Religional_art/StGeorgeandthedragon.jpg[/img]

[b][size=3][color=darkslategray]Pilgrim badge depicting St George and the dragon[/color][/size][/b]


England, about AD 1400-1550


This medieval badge is made of lead. It shows St George killing the dragon, watched by the lady Una, whom he is rescuing.

Hundreds of pilgrim badges like this have been found in Britain. These personal objects vividly bring to life the faith of medieval Christians. Going on pilgrimage was an important part of Christian belief in medieval Europe. Pilgrims often travelled hundreds, even thousands, of miles to visit a saint's shrine. Some pilgrims just wished to be close to the remains of their favourite saint. Others hoped to find miraculous cures or were seeking forgiveness for sins. But pilgrimages could also be a form of holiday.

Pilgrim badges were mass-produced in moulds and were cheap so everyone could afford them. People wore them attached to clothes and hats or around the neck to show where they had been on pilgrimage. Most pilgrimage souvenirs are found in or near rivers, because people thought it brought good luck if they threw them into water. The souvenirs usually show a saint, their symbol, or a scene from their life. This helps us to identify the shrine from which a badge came. This badge was probably a souvenir of a pilgrimage to Windsor. The Royal Chapel there contained relics of St George and was the centre for an important order of knights, the Order of the Garter. The cult of St George was particularly popular at the end of the fifteenth century.

如意輪 2007-11-23 04:11 PM

[img]http://i220.photobucket.com/albums/dd46/Western_Religional_art/sproon.jpg[/img]

[size=3][color=darkslategray][b]Set of silver 'apostle' spoons
[/b][/color][/size]
The bowls of each engraved with the sacred monogram 'IHS' for Jesus

From London, England, AD 1536-37

The top of each handle is modelled with a figure of one of Christ's Apostles. Sometimes the spoons were made in sets of thirteen, one for each of the twelve apostles and the thirteenth with the figure of Christ. This set has a figure of the Virgin Mary on the thirteenth spoon. The Apostles are: St Peter, St John, St James the Greater, St James the Less, St Thomas, St Matthew, St Matthias, St Bartholomew, St Jude and St Paul. This set is one of only two sets of early Tudor Apostle spoons made by a single maker to have survived complete.
In England in the sixteenth century wealthy gentry and merchants could afford to have silver items for their personal use. These would include domestic pieces for dining, such as spoons, flagons and cups, as well as items for religious use, such as chalices and patens. Some dining silver was decorated with religious motifs and inscriptions; Apostle spoons symbolize the Last Supper of Christ in the company of the Apostles. Apostle spoons were especially popular in England, but were also found in large numbers in Germany.
T. Wilson, 'Spoons with a taste of history', [i]British Museum Society Bulleti[/i], 46 (July 1984), pp. 24-26

如意輪 2007-11-24 01:11 AM

[img]http://i220.photobucket.com/albums/dd46/Western_Religional_art/Goldmedallion.jpg[/img]

[b][size=3][color=darkslategray]Gold medallion showing Constantine the Great at prayer
[/color][/size][/b]
Divine inspiration

Roman, AD 306-337
Minted in Siscia (modern Sisak, Croatia)

Constantine's reign (AD 306-337) marks a turning point in Roman history. He created the city that would become the capital of the Byzantine Empire (Constantinople) and adopted Christianity as the official state religion.

Constantine was constantly looking for divine guidance to help him win his battles. His coins record his sympathies first with the god Mars, next with the sun-god Sol and finally with the Christian God. At first there was no artistic convention for representing this new religion. However, the early Christians did use symbols, the best example being the Christogram, which first appears during Constantine's reign.

Constantine is shown here gazing heavenwards, perhaps in an attitude of prayer or looking to make some sort of sacred contact. This is not a new or specifically Christian invention since it is seen on portraits of Alexander the Great (336-323 BC). Constantine makes this connection even clearer by being crowned with a diadem, the Greek symbol of kingship rather than the Roman laurel wreath.

In ancient times both pagans and Christians prayed with arms outstretched and eyes raised to the sky, as seen on the wall painting from a Roman villa at Lullingstone, now in The British Museum. However, it is clear that Constantine's allegiance to Christianity is suggested here, as confirmed by the contemporary church historian Eusebius. The historian reports that Constantine believed that the Christian god had shown his support by sending him a vision of the Christogram before his greatest battle, fought before the gates of Rome.

The reverse of the medal depicts Constantine brutally dealing with his enemies, the legend GLORIA CONSTANTINI AVG proclaiming this activity as glorious.

[[i] 本帖最後由 如意輪 於 2007-11-24 01:15 AM 編輯 [/i]]

如意輪 2007-11-24 01:18 AM

[img]http://i220.photobucket.com/albums/dd46/Western_Religional_art/Christianmonogram.jpg[/img]

[size=3][color=darkslategray]Part of a wall painting from a Roman villa[/color][/size]

[size=2][color=darkslategray][b]The Christian monogram
[/b][/color][/size]
Roman Britain, 4th century AD
Lullingstone, Kent

This wall painting was found at Lullingstone, Kent, in the Darenth valley, when the remains of a Roman villa were excavated in 1949. The villa had been built in the late first century AD, and altered and extended several times in the succeeding 300 years. There was evidence for pagan worship at the site well into the fourth century AD, but eventually the family which ran the estate adopted Christianity. At this early date in the history of Christianity, house-chapels and other types of accommodation must have been at least as common as purpose-built churches. A small suite of first-floor rooms at Lullingstone (probably provided with external access) was set aside as a Christian place of worship.

The walls were decorated with elaborate paintings on Christian themes, which have been partially reconstructed . This area bears a monogram formed by the Greek letters chi and rho, the first two letters of Christ's name, which was the standard symbol of Christianity at this period, together with the Greek letters alpha and omega, the first and last letters of the Greek alphabet, another symbol of Christ - 'I am Alpha and Omega, the first and the last' (Revelation 1:8).

如意輪 2007-11-24 01:23 AM

[img]http://i220.photobucket.com/albums/dd46/Western_Religional_art/ivorytriptych.jpg[/img]

[size=3][color=darkslategray]Ivory triptych with the arms of John de Grandisson, Bishop of Exeter[/color][/size]

Medieval, AD 1330-40
From England


The triptych is made from elephant ivory. The Coronation of the Virgin is depicted in the centre panel, set above the Crucifixion. St Peter and St Stephen are represented on the left wing, and St Paul and St Thomas Becket on the right.

The triptych was made for John de Grandisson, Bishop of Exeter (1327-69), whose arms are carved into the right and left spandrels of the arches which contain St Stephen and St Thomas Becket. It is one of a number of works in ivory associated with Grandisson, and unique in that they bear the coat of arms of their patron.

John de Grandisson's early career was quite cosmopolitan. He rose to prominence under the [i]Curia[/i] (the papal court) at Avignon and was consecrated as bishop of Exeter in 1327 by Pope John XXII (reigned 1316-34). Arriving in England the following year, he remained committed to his diocese for the rest of his life. He was a man of education, taste and influence. He was responsible for major works at Exeter, including the building of the Cathedral's nave. During his life he demonstrated a particular devotion to the Virgin Mary, and Saints Peter, Paul, Stephen and Thomas Becket, as reflected here and in the decorative schemes which survive at Exeter Cathedral.

如意輪 2007-11-24 01:29 AM

[img]http://i220.photobucket.com/albums/dd46/Western_Religional_art/Carvedbonecasket.jpg[/img]

[size=3][color=darkslategray][b]Carved bone casket with Romance scenes[/b][/color][/size]

The Romance of Tristram and Isolde

Medieval, early 13th century AD
Probably from Cologne, Germany


This casket features one of the earliest known medieval representations of the Romance of Tristram and Isolde, a story first known from an Anglo-Norman version of around AD 1185. Gottfried von Strassburg (1170?-1215) wrote a German version around AD 1210.

Tristram embodied the chivalrous and knightly ideal: he was a hunter, a musician, a skilled horseman and a master of languages. He was also quick-witted and an ardent lover.

[img]http://i220.photobucket.com/albums/dd46/Western_Religional_art/CarvedbonecasketwithRomancescenes.jpg[/img]
[color=dimgray]View of lid
[/color]
The scene depicted on the lid of this casket shows Tristram and Isolde together in bed, being given the love potion by Brangwain, Isolde's handmaiden. The circumstances of this event vary from version to version, but the tragedy of Tristram and Isolde revolves around the mistaken consumption of the magic potion which draws them into an adulterous union and on the path towards destruction.

The other scenes decorating the casket are images of love and war, and not necessarily directly associated with the Romance.

如意輪 2007-11-24 01:34 AM

[img]http://i220.photobucket.com/albums/dd46/Western_Religional_art/cross.jpg[/img]

Height: 37.200 cm
Width: 25.600 cm

[size=3][color=darkslategray][b]Front of an enamelled altar cross[/b][/color][/size]

Five scenes from the Old Testament

Mosan, about AD 1160-70
From France or Belgium


This richly enamelled cross front, consists of five scenes drawn from the Old Testament separated by ornamental panels of flowers, quatrefoils and lozenges.

The scenes depicted are as follows: in the centre, Jacob blesses the sons of Joseph, Ephraim and Manasseh (Genesis 48:14); in the top terminal, Moses and Aaron are shown with the brazen serpent (Numbers 21:3); in the left terminal Elijah is represented with the widow of Sarepta (I Kings 17:10); in the right terminal there is a Passover scene; in the bottom terminal, spies bearing grapes return from the promised land (Numbers 13:23-28).

Why were these particular themes selected? The back of the cross still exists today in Berlin in the Kunstgewerbe Museum; the two are identical in terms of dimensions, composition, style and technique. The narrative panels that formed part of the back relate the legend of St Helena's discovery of the True Cross. The Old Testament scenes on the front refer to ('prefigure') the Cross and Christ's Crucifixion in a symbolic and thematic way - Jacob forms a cross with his arms; the brazen serpent on its column resembles Christ on the Cross; the two sticks held by the widow of Sarepta form a cross; the slaughtered lamb of the Passover is a prefiguration of the sacrifice of Christ; the grapes from the promised land have Eucharistic significance alluding to the blood of Christ.

The sophisticated imagery of these panels when together would seem to suggest that it was originally designed to hold a relic of the True Cross.

如意輪 2007-11-24 01:41 AM

[img]http://i220.photobucket.com/albums/dd46/Western_Religional_art/Altarcross.jpg[/img]

Height: 11.200 cm
Width: 9.600 cm
Gift of Edmund de Unger in recognition of Neil Stratford, Keeper of Medieval and Later Antiquities from 1975 to 1998


[size=4][color=darkslategray][b]Altar cross[/b][/color][/size]


Reunited with central plaque after more than a century
Catalan or Aragonese (modern Spain)
About AD 1330-50

[img]http://i220.photobucket.com/albums/dd46/Western_Religional_art/Altarcrossback.jpg[/img]

[img]http://i220.photobucket.com/albums/dd46/Western_Religional_art/Altarcrossotherfront.jpg[/img]


This engraved fourteenth-century altar cross is believed to be of Catalan or Aragonese origin. It is decorated with four enamelled copper plaques. The central one shows a floating Christ with arms outstretched as if on the cross, against a blue sky studded with thirty-three stars, one for each of Christ's years on earth. The plaque to the left depicts the Virgin Mary, the one above an angel and the one below Adam rising from Golgotha (the hill on which Christ was nailed to the Cross). The right-hand plaque, which unfortunately is missing, would have shown St John the Evangelist. The plaques were made using the [i]champlevé[/i] technique, where the goldsmith engraves the design into copper and lays powdered coloured glass into the grooves. This fuses with the metal when fired and is then gilded with a mercury-gold solution.

[b]The cross has been in the British Museum's collection since 1895, but the central plaque of Christ has only recently been restored to its original setting. In the nineteenth century many fine religious objects were broken up and pieces such as this were sold to satisfy the demand for small enamels to display in cabinets.[/b] The plaque eventually became part of the Keir Collection, owned by London-based collector Edmund de Unger. While on loan to the British Museum in 1981 for a temporary display its connection to the altar cross was realised. Mr de Unger's generosity in donating the plaque to the Museum in 2003 led to a rare and exciting reunion between the two objects.

[[i] 本帖最後由 如意輪 於 2007-11-24 01:43 AM 編輯 [/i]]

如意輪 2007-11-24 01:46 AM

[IMG]http://i220.photobucket.com/albums/dd46/Western_Religional_art/cross3.jpg[/IMG]

[size=4][color=darkslategray][b]Crucifix[/b][/color][/size]


Honouring a loyal subject


Medieval, around AD 1330
From Hungary


The cross consists of silver plaques arranged on a wooden core. They are decorated with gilding and translucent enamels. The enamels surrounding the figure of Christ depict Christ in Majesty (at the top), the Virgin and St John the Evangelist (at each side) and the figure of Adam rising from his tomb (at the bottom). On the back are represented the Lamb of God and the four symbols of the Evangelists. Smaller quatrefoils of stylized floral motifs and birds are arranged intermittently along the arms and body of the cross.

The coat of arms of Hungary and the insignia of the Hédervári family appear around the six-sided knop at the foot of the cross. The cross may have been made to commemorate the death of Desso Hédervári whose heroic sacrifice in 1330 saved the life of Charles I (1288-1342), king of Hungary. Desso dressed in the king's armour, allowing Charles to escape a Romanian ambush.

The Italian character of the enamels has led to suggestions that the cross was made by a Sienese goldsmith, Peter Gallicus, who was working at the Hungarian court in the 1330s. The enamels were certainly executed by an artist with a detailed knowledge of Italian techniques.

如意輪 2007-11-24 03:42 PM

[img]http://i220.photobucket.com/albums/dd46/Western_Religional_art/Silverplaque.jpg[/img]

Diameter: 4.900 cm (disc)
Height: 15.700 cm (plaque)
          Treasure Trove

[size=4][color=DarkSlateGray][b]Silver plaque and gold disc from the Water Newton treasure[/b][/color][/size]
                           
The earliest Christian silver yet found in the Roman Empire
Roman Britain, 4th century AD
Water Newton, Cambridge shire

These objects are part of a hoard of silver vessels and plaques which is the earliest group of Christian liturgical silver yet found in the Roman Empire. It was discovered in a recently ploughed field at Water Newton, Cambridge shire, the Roman town ofDurobrivae, in February 1975. The hoard was much damaged by the plough. It consists of nine vessels, a number of silver votiveplaques, and a gold disc. This type of plaque is well known from pagan temples bearing dedications to deities such as Mars, Minervaand Jupiter, but the examples found at Water Newton are the first to demonstrate the practice within a Christian congregation.
Many of the objects bear the monogram formed of the Greekletters chi (X) and rho (P), the first two letters of Christ's name, and the symbol most commonly used by early Christians. Twobowls and one plaque have longer inscriptions in Latin. One of these, on a bowl, may be translated as 'I, Publianus, honour yoursacred shrine, trusting in you, 0 Lord.' Other inscriptions givethe names of three female dedicators: Amcilla, Innocentia andViventia, who must also have belonged to the congregation.

如意輪 2007-11-24 04:13 PM

[img]http://i220.photobucket.com/albums/dd46/Western_Religional_art/FletcherChristianswidow.jpg[/img]


[color=DarkSlateGray][b][size=4]Barkcloth made by Fletcher Christian's widow[/size][/b][/color]


Pitcairn Islands, probably late 18th/early 19th century AD

The people of the Society Islands, in common with most other Polynesian islanders, made a form of felted cloth known as barkcloth ([i]tapa[/i]) by beating out the inner bark of a tree - mostly that of the paper mulberry. The cloth was used for garments and bedding.
This barkcloth is said to have been made by Mauatua, the daughter of a Society Islands chief and the partner of Fletcher Christian, the leader of the mutiny on HMS [i]Bounty[/i] in 1789.
In 1787, Lieutenant William Bligh, who had recently served as sailing master to Captain James Cook on his voyages to the South Pacific, was commissioned by Sir Joseph Banks and the British Admiralty to undertake a voyage to collect breadfruit plants from the Society Islands and transport them to the West Indies to be cultivated as food for slaves. Christian was one of several crew who had formed relationships with local women during their long stay in the Society Islands. The mutineers set Bligh and his supporters adrift in the ship's boat and sailed to the remote and uninhabited Pitcairn Island.


They were accompanied by twelve new 'wives' and a few men from the Society Islands. Mauatua was given the nickname 'Mainmast' in recognition of her tall stature, but Christian called her Isabella. She bore him three children. It is thought that Christian was murdered on Pitcairn Island.
The British people, on learning of the mutiny, were greatly interested. Bligh was regarded as a hero and a great navigator, and his account of the mutiny was published in July 1790.

如意輪 2007-11-24 04:18 PM

[img]http://i220.photobucket.com/albums/dd46/Western_Religional_art/theCrucifixionofChrist.jpg[/img]

[size=4][b][color=DarkSlateGray]Panel from an ivory casket: the Crucifixion of Christ[/color]
[/b][/size]
The earliest known narrative portrayal of the Crucifixion

Late Roman, AD420-30
Probably made inRome

This plaque is one of four, which though now separated, must originally have been mounted on the four sides of a small square casket. Each is carved with scenes from Christ's Passion. The other panels depict the Christ carrying the Cross, the empty Sepulchre and Doubting Thomas.
This is the earliest known narrative portrayal of the Crucifixion. It is combined with another scene of death, the hanging of Judas. The stiff, clothed body of Judas pulls down the branch of a tree and a spilled sack of coins lies at his feet. In contrast the exposed limbs of Christ appear still vigorous, and He gazes at the viewer, triumphant in death. A plaque over Christ's head is inscribed REX IUD[AEORUM] ('King of the Jews'). Mary and John stand in similar poses to the left of the cross, while on the right Longinus steps from beneath the arm of the cross across the frame into the viewer's space. In the branch of the tree which bends towards Christ, a bird feeds her chicks - a symbol of the life-giving power of His death.
The depth of the carving - almost three-dimensional - and sense of movement in this particular plaque are typical of the continuation of the classical tradition of ivory carving in Rome.

如意輪 2007-11-24 04:21 PM

[img]http://i220.photobucket.com/albums/dd46/Western_Religional_art/CupfromtheWaterNewtonTreasure.jpg[/img]

[size=4][color=DarkSlateGray][b]Cup from the Water Newton Treasure[/b][/color][/size]

The earliest Christian silver yet found in the Roman Empire

Roman Britain, 4th centuryAD
Water Newton,Cambridgeshire

This cup is part of a hoard of silver vesselsand plaques which forms the earliest group of Christian liturgicalsilver yet found in the Roman Empire. It was discovered in arecently ploughed field at Water Newton, Cambridgeshire, the Romantown of Durobrivae, in February 1975. The hoard was much damaged bythe plough. It consists of nine vessels, a number of silver votive plaques, and a golddisc.

Though the form ofthis handled cup, or[i]cantharus[/i], resemble slater Christian chalices, we cannot make any assumptions about thefunction of the vessel. It has no inscriptions. However, many ofthe objects in the hoard bear the monogram formed by the Greekletters chi (X) and rho (P), the first two letters of Christ's name, a symbol commonly used by early Christians.Two bowls and one plaque have longer inscriptions in Latin. One of these, on a bowl, can be translated as 'I, Publianus, honour your sacred shrine, trusting in you, 0 Lord.' Other inscriptions give the names of three female dedicators: Amcilla, Innocentia and Viventia, who must also have belonged to the congregation.

Individual pieces in the treasure were probably made at different times and indifferent places, and it is impossible to establish accurately the date at which they were hidden. The treasure may have been hidden in response to specific persecution of Christians or to moregeneral political instability.

如意輪 2007-11-24 04:44 PM

[img]http://i220.photobucket.com/albums/dd46/Western_Religional_art/Chatelaineplate.jpg[/img]

[color=DarkSlateGray][b][size=4]Chatelaine plate[/size][/b][/color]

Merovingian, 7th centuryAD
From Amiens, Somme,France

This copper-alloy plate, originally tinned toresemble silver, would have been worn on achatelaine.The plate would have been hung from a belt by straps attached tothe loops at the top.

Whenviewed vertically, the openwork design gives the vague impressionof a stick figure between two other figures. The paired figureshave birds' heads, and arms at an anatomically impossibleangle. It is only when the object is viewed on its side, and thestruts supporting the figures are ignored, that the design can becorrectly read as a fish between two eagles.

The eagle has an early, pagan significance: the Romans associated it withJupiterand the Franks possibly with Wodan. However, similar Merovingianplates with incised crosses have been found at other sites. This suggests that the scene should be given a Christian interpretation:the eagle possibly representing Christ, and the fish, a commonChristian image, representing the redeemed human soul.

[[i] 本帖最後由 如意輪 於 2007-11-24 04:47 PM 編輯 [/i]]
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